Annual rainfall: 1100-2400mm.
Normal temperature range: 16-35 °C.
Altitude range: 0 to 1000m.
Seasonal adaptability: Can tolerate 3-4 months dry season.
Soils: pH of 5.0-7.5, deep well drained soils, clay-loams, sandy-loams.
Light requirement: Medium.
Other site limitations: Does not withstand flooding.
Height at maturity: 10-25m.
Diameter at breast height (1.3m) at maturity: 30-60 cm.
Form: Good, straight bole, but branching begins quickly; fruits borne from trunk and branches.
Coppicing ability: Poor.
Growth: Can reach 5 m height in 5 years.
Fast-growing fruit tree able to grow in a range of climates. Straight-stemmed variety provides good timber and does not shade nearby crops. Generally not prone to disease or pest infestation.
Fruit production decreases after 35-40 years. After 40 years, some holes may develop in the trunk, affecting wood quality.
Fruit: Fruiting starts after about 5 years; earlier for grafted trees. Fruits require several months to mature, yields vary but 8-12 fruits/tree/year is normal for 5-year-old trees. Immature fruits used as vegetable in cooked dishes such as curries.
Wood products: Fuelwood and small timber; 3-5 m3/ ha/yr when grown at a density of 80 stems/ha. Also used to manufacture guitars.
Fuelwood: Good, with wood density of 0.5-0.7 and calorific value of 4600 kcal/kg.
Fodder: Not good, but leaves and fruit rinds usable. Other: Latex and dye. Dye is produced by boiling the sawdust. In Nepal, the root is used to relieve diarrhoea and unripe fruit as a laxative.
From seed. Spacing in plantation is usually 8x8 m or greater.
Seeds are recalcitrant and cannot be stored long; should be planted when fresh. Store for short periods in airtight plastic bags or in dry sand. Seeds lose viability after 1 month.
Pruning. Rotations are normally 20-30 years, after which fruit production decreases dramatically.
Intercropping in homegarden systems.