1. Alcorn, J.B. 1989a. An economic analysis of Huastec Mayan forest management. Pp. 182-206, in Browder, J. (ed.), Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
MEXICO Alcorn describes and evaluates a social forestry system used by indigenous farmers living in northeastern Mexico. Huastec forest management creates patches of telom. These are managed forest plots containing elements of primary and secondary forests as well as introduced species. The average telom of a household ranges from 0.25 ha to 3 ha. Teloms border one another, creating irregularly shaped, managed forest groves of 25 ha or more.
2. Alcorn, J.B. 1989b. Process as resource: the traditional agricultural ideology of B ora and Huastec resource management and its implications for research. Pp. 6377, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
MEXICO and GENERAL Through the examination of Huastec and Bora agricultural practices, Alcorn argues that farmers use and value natural processes as natural resources. The resources viewed by traditional farmers are different
i than those viewed by Western observers. In order to understand tropical agroecosystems and ecology, observers must understand how traditional farmers use and view natural resources.
3. Altieri, M.A. and Farrell, J. 1984. Traditional farming systems of south-central Chile, with special emphasis on agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems 2:3-18.
CHILE The authors discuss the management of farms by the Mapuche Indians of south-central Chile, in which trees are a major component of the agricultural system. Farmers leave native trees in their fields because of their nitrogen-fixing capabilities. Fruit and nut orchards are used for animal grazing. Trees are also used as living fences and for the production of wood in areas where there is no heavy forest cover. In 1979, the Chilean government delegitimized communally owned land of indigenous groups and declared that all such land had to be turned into individually held plots.
4. Anderson, A. and Posey, D.A. 1989. Management of a tropical scrub savannah by the Gorotire Kayapo of Brazil. Pp. 159-173, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
BRAZIL This is an analysis of Kayapo management of scrub savannah vegetation in the southern state of Paro in Brazil. It is argued that the system of resource management employed by the Kayapo is extremely complex. The authors state that their research refutes the idea that indigenous groups practise burning as a form of resource management only in the scrub savannah. The manipulation of savannah vegetation influences vegetation features and "could have important implications concerning the origins of natural vegetational communities".
5. Araquistain, R. 1979. Potential use of wet tropics soils in the Atlantic Zone of Nicaragua. In Proceedings of a Workshop on Agro-Forestry Systems in Latin America. Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE). Turrialba, Costa Rica.
NICARAGUA The study examines the use of wet tropics in Nicaragua. The author emphasizes the need for planning and creation of development projects based on an adequate coordination of land quality, type of utilization and land tenure. Planning is especially recommended for peasant settlement projects under agrarian reform. Marketing and consumer cooperatives are considered essential parts of the planning process.
6. Balee, W. 1989. The culture of Amazonian Forests. Pp. 1-21, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
REGIONAL The author argues that approximately 12 percent of the Brazilian Amazon is anthropogenic and that the majority of indigenous groups are resource managers and not foragers. He states that large portions of the Amazon forest "manifest cultural histories". Groups do not merely respond to environmental limitations, but manipulate the environment and natural resources to their advantage.
7. Balee, W. and Gely, A. 1989. Managed forest succession in Amazonia: the Kapor case. Pp. 129-158, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
BRAZIL Research among the Kapor Indians of the eastern Amazon in Brazil demonstrates that indigenous groups manipulate flora and fauna and ultimately increase bio-diversity. This helps to maintain and enhance the habitability of the forest. The authors argue that the "diversity of vegetational zones and ... sustained productivity of the land, flora, and fauna about Kapor settlements may be conceived in terms of human manipulation of primary Amazonian forest over the long term."
8. Balzano, A. 1986. Socioeconomic aspects of agroforestry in rural Haiti. Agroforestry Outreach Research Project, University of Maine, Orono, USA.
HAITI Balzano analyses why farmers in communities in Haiti decide to grow trees and how trees are integrated into farms. He argues that insecurity about land tenure reduces potential for tree growing. Once planted, trees are protected by farmers. The study includes a list of recommendations for improving a programme in Haiti to increase tree production by farmers.
9. Blaikie, P. and Brookfield, H. (eds.). 1987. Land degradation and society. Methuen, London, UK.
GENERAL This book is a collection of papers on the mismanagement of land resources and the underlying political and economic factors. The authors include a chapter on the degradation of common property resources in which they present a model to be used as a framework for analysing common property resources management.
10. Boom, B.M. 1989. Use of plant resource by the Chacobo. Pp. 78-96, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
BOLIVIA The author presents the results of an ethnobotanical study of the Chacobo Indians in the Bolivian Amazon. In a 1-ha study area, it was found that 82 percent of the tree species and 95 percent of the individual trees were utilized by the Chacobo. Species were used for food, fuel, construction and crafts, commercial and medicinal purposes. Boom argues that understanding how indigenous groups manage trees can help groups who engage in efforts to save tropical forest areas, and design strategies that better serve indigenous groups.
11. Breslin, P. and Chapin, M. 1984. Conservation Kuna-style. Grassroots Development 8:26-35.
PANAMA The Kuna Indians of Panama are encountering a threat to their cultural and material survival from colonization. The Kuna are adapting to this challenge by turning part of their reservation into a park and wildlife refuge that includes research facilities.
12. Bromley, D.W. 1989. Property relations and economic development: the other land reform. World Development 17:867-877.
GENERAL The author discusses the various types of property regimes in land. He argues that an incomplete understanding of the property relations on public domain lands has led to the erroneous suggestion that private property rights should be created to stimulate economic development. He further presents a model of the private-public boundary that challenges the view that wealth would increase if land were privatized.
13. Bromley, D.W. and Cernea, M.M. 1989. The management of common property natural resources: some conceptual and operational fallacies. World Bank Discussion Paper 57. World Bank, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL This document reviews the interpretation of the term "common property" and addresses the relations between property issues and project strategies to resource management regimes. The authors argue that the dissolution of local level institutional arrangements are a major cause of resource degradation in developing countries. An important conclusion of their analysis is that local users must be actively incorporated in any agricultural, environmental protection and natural resources programme or project.
14. Browder, J.O. 1989. Development alternatives for tropical rain forests. Pp. 111134, in Leonard, J. (ed.), Environment and the poor: development strategies for a common agenda. Transaction Books, New Brunswick, USA.
GENERAL The author explores different tropical forest management strategies that combine conservation and economic development objectives. These strategies include: plantation forestry, natural forest management and tropical agriculture and agroforestry. The author also examines the economic (employment and income) dimensions of tropical forest land uses and their impacts on biodiversity.
15. Browder, J.O. 1988. Public policy and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Pp. 247-297, in Repetto, R. and Gillis, M. (eds.), Public forest policies and the misuse of forest resources. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
BRAZIL The author analyses how government policies regarding taxation, credit, timber concessions and public investment contribute to deforestation and the misuse of forest resources. The case of the Brazilian Amazon demonstrates that the high degree of deforestation is a result of policies that promote other activities such as cattle ranching. Browder argues that the value of the forest must be recognized to allow the use of its resources in a non-destructive manner.
16. Bruce, J.W. 1990. Community forestry: rapid rural appraisal of tree and land tenure. FAO/SIDA Community Forestry Note 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
GENERAL This paper develops a framework for the analysis and design of community forestry activities. The framework consists of considering tenure issues in forestry within three tenure types: the holding, the commons and the forest reserve. It also examines from the household point of view, the opportunities for tree planting and use under these types of tenure. This paper is expected to serve as an aide for field work.
17. Budowski, G. 1982. The socio-economic effects of forest management on the lives of people living in the area: the case of Central America and some Caribbean countries. Pp. 87-102, in Hallsworth, E.G. (ed.), Socio-economic effects and constraints in tropical forest management. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
REGIONAL and GUATEMALA The author divides forest management into fourcategories: (1) protection (total orpartial), (2) wood production, (3) agroforestry and (4) multiple use. He analyses each category in terms of its present and potential impact on local populations living within or near the forest. He gives examples of successful experiences in the four categories and considers as particularly promising the widespread agroforestry practices throughout the region. The author also argues that a major problem with managing protected forest land is that farmers in the surrounding area feel that national parks and protected watersheds limit their traditional rights. As an example of a successful experience, in the Maria Tecum Forest of Guatemala, protection restrictions have worked because the forest is the property of the municipality governed by a respected council of elders.
18. Bunch, R. 1988. Guinope Integrated Development Program, Honduras (World Neighbors). Pp. 40-44, in Conroy, C. and Litvinoff, M. (eds.), The greening of Aid. IIED/Earthscan Publications, London, UK.
HONDURAS This study examines how with simple soil conservation practices and environmental management, maize and vegetable yields have increased in 50 Honduran villages, resulting indirectly in the improvement of the environment and forest protection. The programme has improved tree cover by controlling erosion, increasing per-hectare productivity which reduces the amount of land that farmers use and eliminating agricultural burning. Turpentine collection that was killing tens of thousands of pine trees around Guinope was also stopped. A reforestation effort was aimed at producing popular trees such as fruit trees. An educational programme was implemented to teach farmers about the value of growing trees.
19. Cabarle, B. 1989. Ecuador trip report: PAFE [Ecuadorean Forestry Action Plan] and grassroots participation. Workshop on Indigenous Peoples and Amazonian Forest Resources, FCUNAE [First Community Workshop on the Use and Wise Management of the Renewable Natural Resources of the Ecuadorean Amazon]. Forestry and Land Use Program, World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA.
ECUADOR A description of workshop held in Ecuador. FCUNAE is a coordinating group of 52 communities on the lower Napo River in eastern Ecuador. Their members are mostly of Quichua origin. The author presents the strategies indigenous communities use to preserve forests. The workshop was designed to provide communities with answers to questions they have regarding forest and resource conservation. As a conclusion, the author argues that one of the best ways to preserve forest resources is to develop community-based resource management plans. The report contains a list of contacts in Ecuador.
20. Campos Romero, R. 1976. System of rural settlement 'Jenaro Herrera.' In Informe sobre Seminario FAO/SIDA sobre Ocupacion Forestal en America Latina. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
PERU The author analyses the transformation of the rural settlement Jenaro Herrera from traditional slash-and-burn agriculture with a period of cultivation of 2-3 years, and manual wood-extraction into a joint development project of the Peruvian and Swiss governments. The forestry development objectives were the utilization of the renewable natural resources of the region through the integration of forest and agrarian activities, as well as cattle-raising, fishing and wildlife resources. Priority was given to socially-owned enterprises or cooperatives. The total extension of area was 30,000 ha and 350 jobs were provided.
21. Carroll, T. and Baitemann, H. 1987. Organizing through technology. Grassroots Development 11:12-20.
COSTA RICA Along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Costa Rica, a small private development organization, the New Alchemy Institute [Asociacion de los Nuevos Alquimistas, or ANAL], is pioneering new methodologies for helping small farmers. With Inter-American Foundation support, ANAL helped 25 rural groups organize and manage their own nurseries for introducing new and improved perennial crops to local farmers. From 1985 to 1987, more than 1,000 peasants had planted 1 million seedlings on their own land. The three aspects of ANAI's work - appropriate technology generation, service delivery and enhancing local organizational capacity - are the basic building blocks of success for a whole set of private developmental groups.
22. Cavieres, A. and Lara, A. 1983. La Destruccion del Bosque Nativo para Efectuar Plantaciones de Pino insigne en la Cuenca del Rio Canicura, Comuna de Quilleco, Provincia de Biobio, VIII Region. [The destruction of natural forest to establish Pine plantations in Biobio.] Informe Tecnico 1:97. Comision para la Defensa de la Flora y Fauna (CODEFF), Santiago, Chile. (In Spanish.)
CHILE This document reviews the negative consequences of the transformation of natural forest into commercial plantations specialized in timber production. It addresses the ecological and social impacts of this transformation. The rural population lost access to forest lands from which formerly obtained a diverse array of products.
23. de Ceara, I.A.1987. Land tenure and agroforestry in the Dominican Republic. Pp. 301-314, in Raintree, J.B. (ed.), Land, trees and tenure. Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA and International Council on Agroforestry Research, Nairobi, Kenya.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC The author examines a rural development programme implemented in the Dominican Republic in 1979. The project, entitled Plan Sierra, was designed to improve soil condition and forest cover through the improvement of living standards of area residents. It involved the promotion of income generating trees on privately held land. The National Forest Law prohibits the cutting of certain tree species and made many farmers reluctant to grow certain hardwood species.
24. Cernea, M.M. 1985. Alternative units of social organization sustaining afforestation strategies. Pp. 267-292, in Cernea, M.M. (ed.), Putting people first: sociological variables in rural development. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
GENERAL Cernea provides a general framework for the analysis of social structural variables present in social forestry programmes. Among these variables, land tenure and patterns of group organization are particularly important. The author argues that the adequate identification of the units of social organization is the key factor to design successful afforestation social strategies. Several alternative types of social units (community woodlots, family forestry, small groups, associations, etc.) are described which focus on the necessary fit between technical silvicultural aspects and the characteristics of each type of unit.
25. Chambille, K. 1983. Atenquique: los Bosques del Sur de Jalisco. [Atenquique: the forests of Southern Jalisco.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This book forms part of a series of research projects to evaluate the use of forests in seven states in Mexico where this resource is significantly important. The author examines the state of forest resources in southern Jalisco, describes the timber extraction and industrialization process and outlines, in the final section, the main conflicts arising from the interaction of different actors. Due to the practical monopoly on the exploitation of the forest resources from the Compania Industrial de Atenquique, S.A. (CIDASA), established in 1945 with public and private funds, the owners of the forest (private properties, ejidos, and comunidades) have had minimum participation in the decisions about the use and management of the forest.
26. Clay, J. 1988. Indigenous peoples and tropical forests: models of land use and management from Latin America. Cultural Survival Report 27. Cultural Survival, Cambridge, USA.
REGIONAL This is a very useful and interesting review of examples of forest management by indigenous groups in Latin America. These groups sustain their populations by gathering forest products, hunting, practising aquaculture and establishing swidden or permanent agriculture. The book includes a summary of the research undertaken and an extensive bibliography.
27. CONAFOR. 1988. Programa de Accion Forestal Tropical en Mexico. [Tropical Forestry Action Plan in Mexico.] Comision Nacional Forestal, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This is a proposal from the Mexican government for implementation of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP). The document reviews the forestry sector in Mexico and describes in detail some experiences in tropical forests located in the States of Quintana Roo, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz and Tabasco.
28. Conway, F.J. 1988. Agroforestry Outreach Project, Haiti. Pp. 78-83, in Conroy, C. and Litvinoff, M. (eds.) The greening of aid: sustainable livelihoods in practice. Earthscan Publications, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK.
HAITI This paper describes a USAID-funded project which provided tree seedlings to peasants to plant on their farms. In four years, approximately 110,000 farmers planted more than 25 million seedlings. The project was implemented entirely by non-governmental organizations. The author analyses the design, implementation and sustainability of the project. He also draws several conclusions regarding the factors that contributed to its success and replicability.
29. Cordova, H. 1990. Integral rural development: theory and reality. Paper presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 19-21 April, Toronto, Canada.
PERU and GENERAL Cordova provides a discussion of the theory behind integral rural development. The author argues that development projects should acknowledge four systems: economic, political, ecological and sociocultural. A reforestation project in the Sierra of Piura, Peru, is discussed, as an example of integral development. Reforestation was attempted as a way to improve the watershed of small farmers. Tree seedlings were given to farmers due to a lack of technical assistance the project was not successful.
30. Davis, S. 1985. A Sawmill in Bolivia. Grassroots Development 9:3-9.
BOLIVIA The author discusses a project funded by the Inter-American Foundation that brought a sawmill to a group of Ayoreode Indians in eastern Bolivia. Group cooperatively managed the sawmill and the forest where the timber came from. High-value trees were used as a savings account when income was badly needed. A self-management committee was established that ran the cooperative with the help of a Bolivian PVO.
31. Declaracion de Tecpan de Galeana sobre los Bosques y Selvas de Mexico. [Declaration of Tecpan concerning forests and jungles of Mexico.] 1988. La Jornada, June 23. Mexico City, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This document, published in a Mexico City newspaper, summarizes the results of the 8th national meeting of about 23 forestry peasant organizations that exist nationwide. It describes the history of the forestry peasant organizations in Mexico and presents their demands to the government with respect to: the management and conservation of forests, the status of forest and ecological legislation, and the transfer of the state-owned forest enterprises to the peasant organizations. The peasant organizations ask for an end to forest concessions to private and public enterprises, and to the creation of protective reserves without the involvement of the local communities. The document emphasizes the importance of the direct participation of peasant organizations in the management and control of the forests in Mexico.
32. Denevan, W. (ed). 1984. Indigenous agroforestry in the northeast Peruvian Amazon. Report to the Man and the Biosphere Program Project, 1981-1983. Institute for Environment Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
PERU Denevan discusses the results of an MAB research project which examined swidden-fallow agroforestry systems utilized by Bora Indians in the Peruvian Amazon. He states that the use of swidden-fallow agriculture has the potential to become an economically viable method of forest preservation and sustainable agricultural production. Although fallow management and other agroforestry systems results in some degradation of the forest environment, it is an intermediate approach that permits an economic return with small amounts of degradation.
33. Denevan, W. and Padoch, C. (eds.). 1987. Swidden-fallow agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon. Advances in Economic Botany 5. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
PERU This book is a collection of papers dealing with ethnobotanical research in the Peruvian Amazon. The chapters exemplify the quantification of this type of research. The book concludes with a recommendation for further research and provides 14 points suggested as a framework for further research.
34. Denevan, W. and Treacy, J. 1988. Young managed fallows at Brillo Nuevo. Pp. 8-45, in Denevan, W.M. and Padoch, C. (eds.), Swidden-fallow agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon. Advances in Economic Botany 5. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
PERU The authors provide an in-depth discussion of swidden-fallow management by the Bora in Peru. They define the swidden-fallow production system as a process that is an "identifiable sequence from original forest with some economic (useful) plants present, to a swidden with numerous individual economic plants present, to an orchard fallow or agroforestry phase combining managed economic plants and natural vegetation, to a forest fallow in which economic plants are fewer but still present in greater number." Excellent graphics demonstrate the transitional stages from a managed swidden to a forest fallow that still retains managed tree species.
35. EECN. 1989. Informe anual a la Vicerrectoria de Extension. [Annual report to the Extension Vice-Chancellor.] Equipo de Extension de Cano Negro (EECN). Universidad Nacional Autonoma (UNA). Heredia, Costa Rica. (In Spanish.)
COSTA RICA This document discusses work with peasants by a university extension team to create a nursery with valuable indigenous species which are combined with cacao. Several hundred seedlings have been transplanted from the communal nursery to private plots. Ten percent of the seedlings were utilized for reforestation in watersheds, as windbreaks and as ornaments for the benefit of the community. Organization and education is one of the most important objectives of the project which has helped people who live in or near the Cano Negro wildlife refuge.
36. FAO. 1985. Intensive multiple-use forest management in the tropics. Forestry Paper 55. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
GENERAL This paper reviews a series of case studies from India, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. In the analysis of the Honduran case, authors argue that social forestry was the main objective in the creation of the Honduran Corporation for Forestry Development (CODHEFOR), a parastatal enterprise. 1nadequate legal regulations, administrative problems within CODHEFOR and political and economic constraints at the national level, impeded the proper implementation of the project's objectives. An FAO technical cooperation mission evaluated the project concluding that: groups organized around forestry do not have a clearly defined role in the primary objectives of CODHEFOR, there is a need to define a cooperative model adapted to the Honduran situation, the real and potential capacity of the forest to support its population needs to be established, economic problems cannot be solved by the forestry sector alone, and there is an urgent need for participatory planning of the forestry social system groups.
37. Falconer, J. 1987. Forestry extension: a review of the key issues. ODI Social Forestry Network Paper 4e. Overseas Development Institute, London,'UK.
GENERAL This work provides insight into issues regarding forestry extension work and how extension agents can help make forestry programmes successful. Falconer argues that forestry extension "provides the means for encouraging or inducing local participation", which, she argues, should be the main goal of extension efforts. She states that problems with forestry programmes often are due to inappropriate extension efforts.
38. Foley, G. and Barnard, G. 1985. Farm and community forestry. OD1 Social Forestry Network Paper lb. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
GENERAL The authors provide a broad definition of farm and community forestry, and argue that forestry programmes must be "based on a clear understanding of the realities of local circumstances, and of the constraints they impose". They provide brief but helpful analysis of issues that development experts must recognize and understand in order to successfully implement forestry programmes. They state that "farm and community forestry is intended to encompass the full range of approaches that have been employed in involving rural people in tree growing."
39. Fortmann, L. and Bruce, J.W. (eds.). 1988. Whose Trees'?: Proprietary Dimensions of Forestry. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
GENERAL This important work contains many articles discussing the manner in which rights related to trees and land are defined and distributed in both developed and developing countries. The Latin American cases examine Costa Rica, Honduras and Haiti.
40. Fortmann, L. and Rocheleau, D. 1985. Women and agroforestry: four myths and three case studies. Agroforestry Systems 2:253-272.
GENERAL The authors discuss projects in the Dominican Republic, India and Kenya that involve agroforestry and women. They argue that women are ignored in agroforestry projects due to lack of knowledge of their activities and participation in household and community economies. In one example, they outline the neglect of women in the Plan Sierra programme in the Dominican Republic. The role women play in gathering fuel wood was ignored. An opportunity to involve women in the programme was lost.
41. Galletti, H. A. and Arguelles, A. 1987a. La experiencia en el aprovechamiento de las selvas en el estado de Quintana Roo, Mexico: del Modelo forestal clasico a un modelo forestal alternativo. [Management of forests in Quintana Roo, Mexico: from the classical forestry model towards an alternative forestry model.] Ponencia presentada en el Taller Internacional sobre Silvicultura y Manejo de Selvas, May 11-21, SARH/COFAN/FAO, Chetumal, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO The Plan Piloto started in 1983 when a forest concession of the stateowned company, Maderas Industrializadas de Quintana Roo (MIQRO), ended. The authors argue that the model which considers the forests as national patrimony and then dictates the management of the resource without the direct participation of the local population faces an impasse. This crisis is manifested, among other things, in the rapid rate of deforestation. State-sponsored colonization programmes in the same areas as the concession contributed to upset the original forest management plan and render the model inappropriate. The authors describe in detail the conception and implementation in Quintana Roo of an alternative model to forest management in which organized communities take direct control of the productive process.
42. Galletti, H.A. and Arguelles, A. 1987b. Planificacion estrategica para el desarrollo rural. El caso del Plan Piloto Forestal de Quintana Roo. [Strategic planning for rural development: forestry pilot plan of Quintana Roo.] Pp. 317-325, in Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop: Land and Resource Evaluation for National Planning in the Tropics, January 25-32. USDA Forest Service/FAO/SARH Publication GTR WO-39. Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO The authors present several criteria for a conceptual planning framework and describe the implementation of these criteria according to the experience of the Pilot Plan. The inclusion of the local population in the process is a complex task and requires a shift in official attitudes for planning and implementation. There must be flexibility and an understanding of development and use of the resource as an evolving mechanism in which both the peasant and the forestry technician learn from each other. For the success of the plan, it was crucial to count on the support of the governor of the state and high officials at the federal level. Other criteria were also important for implementation: attitudes of the local population, sound silvicultural management, industrialization, marketing and institutional aspects. The results are evaluated for three harvest seasons. The organizational structure emerged directly from three years of working experience of the local population, technicians and official institutions.
43. Gomez-Pompa, A. 1987. On Maya silviculture. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 3(1):1-17.
MEXICO The author uses as evidence the abundance of useful tropical trees in archaeological sites to reconstruct an hypothetical silvicultural system of the old Maya. He describes this system as "a series of activities of protection, cultivation, selection, and introduction of trees in their milpas, fallows, plantations, natural forests, houses, living fences, cenotes and urban centers". He draws important conclusions for current and future efforts to manage the forests in these areas. He suggests paying attention to distributional patterns of species and to capitalize on the knowledge that traditional cultures have regarding their environment and resources.
44. Gomez-Pompa, A., Flores, J.S. and Sosa, V. 1987. The `Pet Kot' : a man-made tropical forest of the Maya. Interciencia 12(1):10-15.
MEXICO Pet kot is forest vegetation enclosed in a wall of stones, found on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The authors studied arboreal patches of vegetation to support their thesis that portions of the `natural' rain forest of the region are actually manmade forest. They conclude that these forest patches are "an appealing additional alternative for modern reforestation and biological conservation projects in the tropics".
45. Gonzalez-Pacheco, C. 1983. Capital extranjero en la selva de Chiapas, 18631982. [Foreign capital in the forest of Chiapas, 1863-1982.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This book constitutes a historical account of the use and destruction of one of the most important forested areas in southeastern Mexico. The author presents interesting archival evidence of the process of forest mining that transnational companies have carried out for decades which have caused the destruction of valuable resources in detriment to local populations and to the country itself.
46. Gregersen H.M. 1988. People, trees and rural development: the role of social forestry. Journal of Forestry 86:22-30.
GENERAL Gregerson argues that social forestry can play a large role in improving the environment, increasing food and energy security and reducing unemployment. He states that the condition for successful programmes involve local participation backed by higher level political support and appropriate-sustainable technologies.
47. Gregersen, H. M., Draper, S. and Elz, D. 1989. People and trees: the role of social forestry in sustainable development. EDI Seminar Series. Economic Development Institute, World Bank, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL The authors integrate information regarding social forestry issues for developing countries. This is intended to serve as a reference for training people who formulate policies or design or implement social forestry programmes. Fifteen chapters cover themes such as the relations of social forestry with environmental aspects, agriculture and the fuelwood crisis. Other themes covered are: employment and income generation, planning framework, working with local communities, organizational aspects, land tenure, education, training and research.
48. Gregersen, H. and McGaughey, S.E. 1987. Social forestry and sustainable development. Pp. 7-20, in Southgate, D. and Disinger, J.F. (eds.), Sustainable resource development in the Third World. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
GENERAL The authors define social forestry as tree-related production for personal and local use and argue that this approach is better for certain circumstances in developing countries than large-scale forestry or agroforestry. The difficulties and elements needed for successful implementation are highlighted by the authors. Public subsidies, development of markets, financing and technical assistance are important elements to consider when social forestry is pursued as an alternative.
49. Hartshorn, G. 1989. Sustained yield management of natural forests: the Palcazu production foreste. Pp. 130-138, in Browder, J. (ed.), Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
PERU This is a discussion of a shelterbelt forest management system implemented in the Palcazu Valley in eastern Peru, as part of a USAID-funded development project. The project included the participation of Amuesha Indians. Hartshorn states that the project requires heavy outside support to function and would not succeed without it. He argues that the strength of the project lies in its use of a cooperative for communal management and marketing timber resources. The recognition of Indian land rights by the government has also given the cooperative the security to develop a forestry programme.
50. Hecht, S.B. 1989. Indigenous soil management in the Amazon Basin: some implications for development. Pp.166-181, in Browder, J. (ed.), Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
BRAZIL Hecht discusses the indigenous versus modernization approaches to soil resource management in Amazonia research and development strategies. The Kayapo designate 14 types of land use as agriculture, which include ceremonial planting, reforestation, truck gardens as well as swidden plots. The author concludes that these systems are better producers of calories and proteins than any of the alternatives and do not damage the resource base, and that indigenous management systems should be taken into account by development experts.
51. Hecht, 5.1982. Agroforestry in the Amazon Basin: practice, theory and limits of a promising land use. Pp. 331-372, in Hecht, S. (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Amazonia Agriculture and Land Use Research. CIAT, Cali, Colombia.
BRAZIL This is a useful and informative discussion of agroforestry systems in the Amazon. It provides the reader with an understanding of how different agroforestry systems function. Hecht argues that agroforestry is the least studied agricultural system in the Amazon. She calls for further research from an interdisciplinary perspective that examines social as well as technical aspects of agroforestry.
52. Hecht, S.B., Anderson, A.B. and May, P. 1988. The subsidy from nature: shifting cultivation, successional palm foresets and rural development. Human Organization 47(1):25-35.
BRAZIL The authors focus on the roles of successional palm forests of babassu (Orbignya phalerata) in the ecosystemic and socioeconomic operation of shifting cultivation societies in the Brazilian state of Maranhao. They give reasons why secondary forests deserve greater attention by rural development professionals. Babassu provides subsistence products and has an important role in the market economy.
53. Hecht, S.B. and Cockburn, A. 1989. The fate of the forest: developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. Verso, New York, USA.
REGIONAL and BRAZIL The authors provide one of the most comprehensive histories of the geography and ecology of the Amazon region, with emphasis on how current problems are a manifestation of the historical goal of the Brazilian state to develop the area. This is an excellent discussion of indigenous forest management, and the history of the Seringueiros. Hecht and Cockburn argue that if the Amazon is to be saved from destruction then solutions to deforestation must involve the people who live in the forest. The book also includes a comprehensive bibliography.
54. IAF. n.d. Project reports. 1nter-American Foundation, Washington DC, USA.
REGIONAL Thirty-one project reports of agroforestry and other type of communal management of forests in thirteen Latin American and Caribbean countries. Given the number of projects that this agency is sponsoring, it will be an important source of information on these issues in the near future.
55. Irvine, D. 1989. Succession management and resource distribution in an Amazonian rain forest. Pp. 223-237, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
ECUADOR The author examines succession management of tropical rain forest by the Runa Indians in the Napo Province of Ecuador. Due to their living in dispersed settlements in contrast to many concentrated settlements of other indigenous groups in the Amazon, the Runa are not under as much pressure to increase succession management in order to concentrate forest resources. The distribution of many tree species was not always done consciously. Irvine found that species diversity of trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height increases through Runa management. Fallows managed by the Runa provide significant additional resources.
56. Janka, H.1985. La economia forestal: algunas consideraciones acerca de una nueva politica forestal. [Forest economy: some thoughts concerning anew forestry policy.] Pp. 73-80, in Reunion Nacional sobre Economia Forestal, Guadalajara. Publicacion Especial 47. SARHIINIF, Mexico City, Mexico.
MEXICO The author analyses the participation of peasants in the management, protection and improvement of forest resources in Mexico within the conception of a new policy trend which could be described as "communal forest economy". The author traces the evolution of the forest policy from the paternalistic perspective of state management (based on the exploitation of natural forests and/ or the establishment of industrial plantations) to the recognition of the direct participation of the local population. Perhaps the most thought-provoking message of this paper is the author's analysis of the difficulties at all levels for the implementation of the new policy. In other words, if a real change in forest policy is expected, it is not enough to pay lip service to the "participation" of communities, but it is necessary to make a commitment (as painful and difficult as it might be) that can yield long-term results.
57. Johnson, A. 1989. How the Machiguenga manage resources: conservation or exploitation of nature. Pp. 213-222, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
PERU Johnson argues that some communities in the Amazon do not manage natural resources to reduce environmental degradation. The conservation values of indigenous communities and their role in environmental conservation can be explained by population pressure on resources and the intensity of agricultural production. The author examines the Machiguengas who live in the Peruvian ceja de selva. Low population pressure and a decentralized kin-based network make it difficult for the Machiguenga to degrade natural resources. Low population pressure prevents them from increasing environmental degradation or advocating a belief system based on conservation and wise use of natural resources.
58. Jordan, C.B.K. 1986. Managing a social forestry program: an experience in communication. FAO/HOLLAND/INFOR. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
PERU The author uses the example of a FAO-supported social forestry programme in the Andean highlands of Peru to argue that forest-based development projects must have an eclectic approach to administration. The lack of trees in the Andes has made it difficult to introduce reforestation programmes based on communal management. Communities know little about tree management and have little forestry tradition. Over 80 communities participated in the project. One of the greatest achievements was the implementation of the programme in such a high number of communities.
59. Lartigue, F. 1983. Indios y Bosques: politicas forestales y comunales en la Sierra Tarahumara. [Indians and forests: communal and forestry policies in the Sierra Tarahumara.] Ediciones de la Casa Chata, CIESAS. Mexico City, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO In this book, the author presents a historical perspective of the forestry exploitation of eiidos and comunidades in the state of Chihuahua, in NW Mexico. The creation of the state company, PROFORTARAH (Productos Forestales de la Tarahumara) in 1974 was part of the traditional approach utilized by the Mexican government to grant concessions to state-owned or mixed companies to administer forest exploitation.
60. Leguizamo, A. 1979. On-going agro-forestry systems in Bajo Calima Buena Ventura, Colombia. Pp. 130-134, in Salas, G. (ed.), Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America. Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
COLOMBIA The author describes a study comparing agroforestry.on public, community and private land with paid workers.
61. Lopez, R. 1990. Los Bosques en Nuestra Historia, su Utilidad, su Cuidado, y el Futuro. [Forests in our history, their use, care and the future.] Union de Comunidades y Ejidos Forestales de Oaxaca. Oaxaca, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This is an historical description of the formation of the Union of Forestry Communities and Ejidos in the state of Oaxaca. It presents their early attempts, in 1982, to begin communal management of forests and their experiences in the past eight years.
62. Macdonald, T. 1988. From reaction to planning: an indigenous response to tropical deforestation and cattle ranching. Paper presented for the Man and the Biosphere First Technical Workshop on the Transformation of Tropical Forests to Pastures in Latin America, 4-7 October, Oaxaca, Mexico.
GENERAL The possible convergence of environmental and Indian interests to find ways to preserve tropical forests is not automatic but can be strengthened. Two elements are of critical importance:
63. Macdonald, T. 1982. Report on community forestry workshop. U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL The recent development of the tropical lowlands combined with colonists who are eager to establish land claims, leads indigenous groups to worry that they will lose their land. The principal means for claiming and defending land is to demonstrate that it is somehow "productive". Where social forestry is recognized by authorities as a legitimate productive activity and thereby a means to guarantee land tenure, one can expect acceptance and success of individual and community projects. The greatest incentive to becoming involved in social forestry lies in relating such projects to the process of obtaining land title. The long-term security offered by permanent possession can override the temptation to reap high immediate returns from ecologically destructive activities. Strategies to accomplish this are recommended.
64. Macdonald, T. and Chernela, J.K. 1990. Politics, development and Indians: a comparison of two resource management projects in the Ecuadorian rain forest. Cultural Survival, Inc., Cambridge, USA.
ECUADOR This paper compares two efforts to control deforestation in the Amazon, both organized through Indian ethnic federations. The authors conclude that excluding Indians from decision making on forestry management programmes increases the likelihood of opposition or rejection. Organizational development and Indian involvement in planning and financial management enabled substantial progress to be made toward income generation and secure land tenure within a general improvement in forest resource management.
65. McGaughey, S. and Gregersen, H. (eds.). 1983. Forest-based development in Latin America. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington DC, USA.
REGIONAL This is an edited version of the reports presented at a regional conference sponsored by the IDB in 1982. The conference focussed on an analysis of investment opportunities and financial needs for the forestry sector in Latin America. This study examines forest industry, financing forest sector and forest industry development strategy throughout the region. It provides complete forest-based statistical information.
66. McLarney, W. 1988. Gandoca/Manzanillo Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. Biological Conservation Newsletter 63. Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA.
COSTA RICA The author briefly discusses the activities coordinated by CIDESA (Corporacion de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo Socio-Ambiental) and ANAL (Asociacion de los Nuevos Alquimistas) in Costa Rica. Conservation projects have been developed with indigenous groups in Talamanca. Community tree nurseries are one of the most important components of the project.
67. Major, M. A. 1987. Participatory communication in development: integrating women into forestry projects in Costa Rica. M.S. Thesis. Department of Agricultural Journalism, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
COSTA RICA This thesis presents the history of the creation of County Agricultural Centers (CAC) in Nicoya, Costa Rica. The CAC in Hojancha (CACH) developed a forest demonstration plan that promoted farm forestry and local women's groups, Coopematambu and Asociacion Monte Romo. Coopematambu is a bakery cooperative which, due to the high cost of providing fuelwood for the oven, was encouraged to establish a forest plantation to produce their own fuelwood. They have planted 1,700 trees. Monte Romo is dedicated to the creation of nurseries of shade-trees for coffee plantations. In its initial stages the group planted 8,260 guava trees. There was such a demand for the seedlings that the women sold all of the trees before they reached the transplanting stage.
68. Moore, T. 1987. La Cooperativa Forestal Yanesha: una alternativa autogestionaria de desarrollo indigena. [Forestry Cooperative Yanesha: a self-managed alternative for indigenous development.] Amazonia Indigena 7:18-27. (In Spanish.)
PERU This is a detailed analysis of the structure of the Yanesha Forestry Cooperative that formed part of the, Central Selva Resource Management Program in the Palcazu Valley, Peru. Moore argues that the cooperative was the first of its kind in the Amazon dedicated to the sustainable harvest of timber. One of the problems encountered was that cooperative members had to hire labourers to harvest their fields. Loans were given to members who needed to pay the labourers they employed because of the difficulty in selling harvested timber. Moore argues that the project did not require the communities to divert their attention away from subsistence activities such as hunting, fishing and agriculture.
69. Moran, E.F. 1989. Models of native and folk adaptation in the Amazon. Pp. 2229, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource Management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
REGIONAL Moran argues that the "size and complexity of populations found in Amazonia are connected to the set of environmental resources available ..." Adjustments are made in social systems and population size depending on the size of the available resources. He uses three models of resource use and management in different geographic zones of the Amazon - fertile floodplains, upland areas and transitional environments.
70. Mulder, R. 1986. Social forestry in Honduras. BOS Newsletter 5(l):19-26. Wageningen, Netherlands.
HONDURAS In 1983, the Honduran Corporation for Forestry Development (CODEFHOR) formulated a project called the Integrated Forestry Development for Social Benefit (Norwegian funding, FAO technical assistance). The project objectives were optimal management and utilization of forest resources and to contribute to improvement in living conditions among farmers in the pine forest areas. By 1986, the project was operating in eight communities, including approximately 500 households in a total area of approximately 21,000 ha. Activities were divided into profitable and nonprofitable. Profitable activities included timber and pole production, seed cone collection, fuel wood collection and resin-tapping. Nonprofitable activities included nursery establishment, plant production, plantation, plantation maintenance, direct seeding, facilitation of natural regeneration, forest protection and road maintenance.
71. Murray, G.F. 1987. Land tenure and agroforestry in Haiti: a case study in anthropological project design. Pp. 323-328, in Raintree, J.B. (ed.), Land trees and tenure: proceedings of an international workshop on tenure issues in agroforestry. Land Tenure Center, Madison, USA, and International Council on Agroforestry Research, Nairobi, Kenya.
HAITI Murray discusses how a USAID-funded reforestation project in Haiti was designed. Individual farmers were given trees to grow. Emphasis was placed on economic benefits gained from growing trees. USAID avoided dealing with Haitian government by directing programme through PVOs working in Haiti.
72. Murray, G.F. 1988. The wood tree as a peasant cash-crop: an anthropological strategy for the domestication of energy. Pp. 215-224, in Fortmann, L. and Bruce, J.W. (ed.), Whose trees?: proprietary dimensions of forestry. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
HAITI Murray explains why reforestation efforts in Haiti have failed and why a USAID-funded programme is succeeding. Haitian farmers are persuaded that growing trees will increase their income and that they have total rights to trees. Individually owned plots give farmers an incentive to grow and protect trees if they have the right to harvest the trees at will. The objective of the project was to introduce wood "as one more crop in the agrarian inventory of the Haitian peasant."
73. Mussak, M. and Laarman, J. 1989. Farmers production of timber trees in the cacao-coffee region of coastal Ecuador. Agroforestry Systems 9:155-170.
ECUADOR The authors discuss the potential for tree growing by farmers in the coastal region of Ecuador. Farmers traditionally grow cacao and coffee. Wood is being produced for sawmills in the region, but most of this wood is from shade and pasture trees. The authors argue that farmers in the region could increase their supply of wood producing trees through small-scale production and management. Management of trees is done on private land. They argue that there is more potential for large-scale farmers to implement commercial forestry programmes.
74. Nations, J.D., Burwell, B. and Burniske, G. 1987. We did this ourselves: a case study in the INAFOR/CARE/Peace Corps (ICCP) Soil Conservation and Forest Management Program. USAID/PC Forest Resources Management Project, Guatemala.
GUATEMALA This ICCP programme, utilizing soil conservation techniques and on-farm tree plantings, has achieved success for the benefit of participating families. At the time the report was written, the programme was working successfully in 13 Guatemalan departments, with 10,661 active participant farmers in 393 communities, using food for work as an incentive for peasants. The authors describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of using this type of incentive and conclude that it can be a powerful tool when accompanied by proper planning, clear-cut goals and solid education and extension work.
75. Nations, J.D. and Coello, H.F. 1989. Cuyabeno Wildlife production reserve. Pp. 139-149, in Browder, J. (ed.), Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
ECUADOR The authors examine a production reserve located in Ecuador that has a tropical forest conservation objective but will also promote the production and management of tropical wildlife of commercial value. Tourism and scientific research complement those goals. The project is in the early stages of development.
76. Nations, J.D. and Nigh, R.B. 1980. The evolutionary potential of Lacandon Maya sustained-yield tropical forest agriculture. Journal of Anthropological Research 36(1):1-30.
MEXICO This is an excellent description of a complex forest-based subsistence system of an indigenous group in Southern Mexico. Two types of primary forest, tropical rain forest and lower montane rain forest, are identified as an ecozone of considerable importance in the Lacandon subsistence system. The Lacandons obtain multiple products from the forest and reflect a deep understanding of the surrounding ecosystem. As the authors explain: "... the Lacandones farm in the forest, they do not replace the forest in order to farm." The authors conclude with a call to support and encourage this "art of living in the tropical forest without destroying it".
77. Noronha, R. and Spears, J.S. 1985. Sociological variables in forestry project design. Pp. 227-266, in Cernea, M.M. (ed.), Putting people first: sociological variables in rural development. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
GENERAL The authors identify and offer advice for the use of the key social variables (population, land tenure, labor, social organization and local needs) for successful forestry projects from the point of view of user-oriented social forestry. Emphasis is put on the different skills and attitudes required from the forester for this type of approach, which involves the direct participation of the beneficiaries.
78. Oakerson, R. 1986. A model for the analysis of common property problems. Pp. 1330, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL Oakerson offers a conceptual model to analyse common property based on the physical characteristics of the resource, the decision making elements, patterns of interaction between the resource and the user group and outcomes resulting from that interaction.
79. Ostrom, E. 1986. Issues of definition and theory: some conclusions and hypotheses. Pp. 599-615, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL Ostrom attempts to establish the basis for a theory that could bridge different disciplines when dealing with "common pool resources". It is a useful discussion of the elements that affect the formation and survival of "user group organizations". If it is accepted that forests could be considered common pool resources in Latin America, the determination of the rules for utilization are the key element for understanding communal management.
80. Otero, L. 1989. Aldeas Rurales y Plantaciones Forestales: Un Estudio sobre la Relacion entre la Poblacibn y su Medio Natural. [Rural settlements and forest plantations: a study of the relationship between population and environment.] Tesis. Instituto de Estudios Urbanos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. (In Spanish.)
CHILE The author traces the evolution of the forest sector in Chile in the last decade and analyses the impacts of commercial plantations on rural settlements. His emphasis is on the interactions between human population and natural environment. He includes some ideas on alternative forest management approaches that benefit rual population.
81. Padoch, C., Inuma, J.D., de Jong, W. and Unruh, J. 1985. Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru. Agroforestry Systems 3:47-58.
PERU Padoch et al. discuss market-oriented agroforestry system practised by Mestizo farmers in the village of Tamishiyacu, Peru, on the Amazon River. They argue that farmers who are not members of indigenous or tribal groups but with knowledge of ecosystems follow the practices of traditional agroforestry. The system is commercially viable, but differs from indigenous methods. For example, charcoal is produced from forest that is burned. Management of resources is done by private landholders.
82. Padoch, C. and de Jong, W. 1989. Production and profit in agroforestry: an example from the Peruvian Amazon. Pp. 130-138, in Browder, J. (ed.), Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
PERU The authors discuss the commercial viability of agroforestry conducted by Mestizo river dwellers in the Peruvian Amazon. They argue that agroforestry fields are diverse and very productive and need only a limited amount of labor input. Marketing items that are produced is difficult due to river transport and lack of knowledge of large-scale marketing systems. They state that species diversity is due to the difference in marketing opportunities.
83. Ponce, J. 1986. Proyecto de Reforestacion Zumbahua. [Zumbahua Reforestation Project.] Quito, Ecuador: Fundacion Natura. (In Spanish.)
ECUADOR Written for a wide audience, this document describes a reforestation experience which transformed the planting of trees into a community action to recover degraded soils and, perhaps more importantly, to educate and train the peasant community in locally managed reforestation and production programmes. The incorporation of peasant women into the project was a crucial factor in its success.
84. Posey, D.A. 1985. Indigenous management of tropical forest ecosystems: the case of the Kayapo indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Agroforestry Systems 3:139-158.
BRAZIL The author describes the forest management system of the Kayapo Indians, discusses its formation and development, and presents an integrative cognitive model showing relationships between forest and savannah as recognized by them. He also discusses its implications for new ideas concerning reforestation and campo management. He concludes that indigenous knowledge is extremely important in developing new strategies for conservation and productivity of similar ecological systems, not only in the Amazon but throughout the humid tropics.
85. Posey, D.A. and Balee. W. (eds.). 1989. Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
REGIONAL This book is a valuable and extremely important collection of papers about the management of resources in Amazonia. The main focus of the book is on the human resources of the region (the native Amazonians). It has two main sections: the first includes four papers that deal with "theoretical approaches to resource management"; the second presents twelve case studies comprehending eight indigenous groups and two folk groups in five Amazonian countries. As explained by the editors, this collection "unites some of the most recent studies of conservation and management, emphasizing how indigenous and folk peoples actually mould the natural landscape to suit their needs and desires".
86. Postel, S. and Heise, L. 1988. Reforestation with a Human Touch. Grassroots Development 12:38-40.
GENERAL The authors argue that protecting the ecosystem from the dangers of accelerating deforestation requires thinking globally but finding effective ways to act locally. Most planting efforts over the last several decades have been aimed at increasing supplies of marketable timber and pulp and easing the fuelwood crisis. By contrast, reforestation, for reasons that lie outside the monetized economy, has been vastly underattended. Tree planting programmes are most effective when local people are involved in their planning and implementation and perceive their own interest in success.
87. Rendon-Cano, J. 1988. Propiedad, tenencia y redistribucion de tierras en la legislacion de America Central y Mexico. [Property, tenure and redistribution of lands in Central America and Mexico.] FAO Legal Paper 39. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. (In Spanish.)
REGIONAL and MEXICO This work reviews the legislation in Central America and Mexico regarding property, tenure and redistribution of land. The author traces the history of property and tenure and concludes that, in all cases, the social function of property and tenure define the rights and duties of landholders.
88. Repetto, R. and Gillis, M. (eds.). 1988. Public policies and the misuse of forest resources. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
GENERAL The authors analyse government policies that have a negative impact on forests in different countries. This book documents how government policies affecting taxation, timber concessions and public investment contribute to deforestation worldwide. There are ten case studies.
89. Rivera, V.F., Ribadeneira, J.C., Mora, J. and Altafuya, A. 1986. Campesinado y organizacion en Esmeraldas. [Peasantry and Organization in Esmeraldas.] Centro Andino de Accion Popular y la Organizacion Campesina Muisne-Esmeraldas, Quito, Ecuador. (In Spanish.)
ECUADOR An area of about 62,000 ha, heavily forested, was purchased collectively in 1885 by a group of ex-slaves on the northern coast of Ecuador, forming the Comuna (commune of) Santiago. The group has defended its land claims for the past 100 years against outside timber, cacao and banana interests, and has evolved a swidden-fallow cultivation land use system combined with gold mining and commercial export crops (ivory palm, cacao, bananas). Timber resources are gradually being depleted as population increases and consumer demands evolve. The collective defence of the natural resources, however, has been relatively effective, and the experience of the Comuna Santiago are instructive for the organizational development of other community managed natural resource programmes.
90. Rodriguez, S. and Quiroz, R. 1988. Cano Negro: una experiencia de extension interdisciplinaria y amplia participacion popular. [Cano Negro: an experience in interdisciplinary extension and broad popular participation.] Paper presented to the CSUCA/DAAD sponsored Central American Symposium on University and Environment. San Jose, Costa Rica. (In Spanish.)
COSTA RICA The authors discuss the environmental education work developed by an extension team sponsored by Universidad Nacional de Heredia (Costa Rica). One of the components is the work of group of peasants that established a forest nursery as a local source of native seedlings.
91. Romero-Pastor, M. 1985. La promocion forestal en la sierra peruana. [Forestry promotion in the Peruvian Sierra.] Pp. 339-348, in Actas del simposio sobre tecnicas de produccion de lena en fincas pequefias. CATIE/FAO/MAB. Turrialba, Costa Rica. (In Spanish.)
PERU The author describes forestry projects in the Peruvian highlands in detail and examines the incentives used and problems encountered, governmental indifference and forestry within the framework of integrated rural development in the highlands of Peru.
92. Roosevelt, A. 1989. Resource management in Amazonia before the conquest: beyond ethnographic projection. Pp. 30-62, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
REGIONAL Archaeological research in the Amazon suggests that pre-conquest populations in the region were much more sophisticated and represented various stages of resource use. Traditional hunting and gathering groups represented many of the early stages of indigenous populations. The author argues "that the Amazonian environment has been extensively occupied and exploited for many thousands of years." Greater population densities and more intensive resource exploitation occur now than previously, however. There is potential for application of ancient systems to contemporary land use systems and research in contemporary Amazonia.
93. de la Rosa, M. 1980. Empresa forestal comunal Santa Cruz Tanaco: una empresa hacia la autogestion. [Community forestry enterprise Santa Cruz Tanaco: an enterprise towards self-management.] IMISAN, Mexico City, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This is a description of the efforts of a community to gain control of its forest resources. The author describes the difficulties of achieving consensus regarding the management of forests in a communal manner.
94. Ruddle, K. 1974. The Yupka cultivation system: a study of shifting cultivation in Colombia and Venezuela. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
COLOMBIA and VENEZUELA Land tenure rights are complicated and range from communal forms to individual freeholding. Each tribe has a recognized territory in which members of other subtribes may not exploit any form of resource. The total subtribal territory is conceived of as belonging to every member of the subtribe, with all use rights vested in the social group. Noncultivable land belongs to the social group as a whole. Individual adult males exercise unrestricted control over cultivable land, including forest and fallow areas, which may not have been cultivated for generations. Real property rights do not end with the return of the land to fallow or the death of planted perennial trees.
95. Salick, J. 1989. Ecological basis of Amuesha agriculture, Peruvian upper Amazon. Pp. 189-212, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
PERU Salick discusses Amuesha agricultural systems in the Palcazu Valley, Peru, arguing that they are adapted to high rainfall in the region and are timed to rainfall patterns. Complex swidden-fallow management is employed to take advantage of diverse ecosystems and seasonal climate variation. The system is designed to provide stable subsistence base.
96. Santos, B. 1983. Foresta: un problema social. [Foresta: a social problem.] Paper presented at the seminar entitled Foresta - Alternativa de Desarrollo. [Foresta: A Development Alternative.] Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. (In Spanish.)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC The author was executive director of the Plan Sierra in the Dominican Republic. The paper studies social problems related to the destruction of forest resource in the highlands of the Dominican Republic. The author argues that in many cases forestry does not provide a high enough economic return for private property owners. There are recommendations for implementing the 1982 forest policy implemented by the president of the Dominican Republic.
97. Schwartzman, S. 1989. Extractive reserves: the rubber tappers' strategy for sustainable use of the Amazon rainforest. Pp. 150-163, in Browder, J.O. (ed.), Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
BRAZIL The author uses data based on a survey of 33 rubber collector households in the Brazilian Amazon and analyses the strategy of extractive reserves. He argues that the concept of extractive reserves emerged as a local response to massive deforestation and environmentally and socially disastrous development schemes in the Amazon. These extractive reserves represent a new way of integrating conservation and rural economic development in the area. The rubber tappers have put their own model before the government and multinational lending institutions as a potential strategy for the sustainable development of tropical forest lands.
98. Schwartzman, S. and Allegretti, M.H. 1987. Extractive production in the Amazon and the rubber tappers' movement. Environmental Defense Fund, Washington DC, USA.
BRAZIL The authors trace the history and evolution of the rubber tappers' movement in Brazil and conclude that the extractive reserves constitute a promising alternative to manage the forest. They describe the main stages of the rubber policy since the beginning of this century. The rubber tappers' movement reached worldwide recognition in the mid-1980s when their leader visited the United States and discussed with officials of multilateral development banks the impacts of lending policies on their forest dependent livelihood.
99. Simeone, R., Suarez, G. et al. 1989. The Central Selva Resource Management Project: a case study in sustainable development in the new world tropics. Lima, Peru.
PERU This is an excellent discussion of a development programme in the Palcazu Valley, Peru, that involved Amuesha Indians. There is a description of forest management techniques for extracting timber resources developed by Gary Hartshorn (the shelterbelt system). The authors examine the forestry cooperative that was developed and argue that the original development project envisioned by the Peruvian government of Belaunde was "turned around" in order to limit environmental degradation in the ceja de selva region. They state that one of the positive aspects of the project was the extensive land use mapping strategy which involved the Amuesha themselves.
100. Simon, D.M. and Scoville, O.J.1982. Forestry cooperatives: organization and performance. NTIS Report PB83-110973. USDA Agricultural Cooperative Service, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL Access to professional forest management and marketing services are easily provided through cooperative organizations. Forestry cooperative activities could be an answer to the needs of owners of small woodland acreage. Examples of these beneficial services to their memberships: handling sales of forest products, exploring new markets, and encouraging proper forest management.
101. Skar, S.L., Samanex, N.A. and Cotarma, S.G. 1982. Fuel availability, nutrition and women's work in highland Peru: three case studies from contrasting Andean communities. World Employment Research Paper WEP101/WP23. International Labor Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.
PERU The authors address issues related to fuelwood production and use in Peru. Due to historic deforestation, there are not extensive communal areas for trees. Villagers either own trees or buy fuelwood from those who live near communal areas that have trees. One cooperative studied owns eucalyptus trees which are sold to outsiders. Cooperative members can also harvest wood from an area of natural vegetation. Only men are permitted to be members. Upon the death of a member, a widow will lose her access to fuel and pasture unless she has a son who joins the cooperative. Outsiders must pay for this privilege. Another village studied lost its traditional communal area for wood to a cooperative which seizes the possessions of any trespasser found foraging for wood; the confiscated equipment can be redeemed only by working for the cooperative for a period of time.
102. Smith, R.C. 1982. The dialectics of domination in Peru: native communities and the myth of the vast Amazonian emptiness. Occasional Paper 8. Cultural Survival, Inc., Cambridge, USA.
PERU This is an excellent and thorough discussion of the potential impacts associated with the development of the Pichis-Palcazu colonization programme promoted by the Peruvian government in 1980. Smith argues that the government ignored the approximately 10,000 indigenous people who lived in the area. He presents a detailed analysis of the history of the Amuesha Indians who inhabit the Palcazu Valley. He also examines the interaction between PVOs and governmental agencies in Peru and the United States. Good reference material. Smith is an anthropologist and has worked extensively with the Amuesha.
103. Smith, N. 1985. Trees and food for a hungry world. Food Policy 10(2):101-105.
GENERAL The author argues that four major policy implications emerge from the experience of agroforestry development schemes:
government support during the initial period - credit and subsidized tree seedlings - is necessary, and
104. Smole, W.J. 1989. Yanoama horticulture in the Parima highlands of Venezuela and Brazil. Pp. 115-128, in Posey, D.A. and Balee, W. (eds.), Resource management in Amazonia: indigenous and folk strategies. Advances in Economic Botany 7. New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA.
BRAZIL and VENEZUELA The author examines resource management techniques of the Yanoama. Forest management is practised during crop production in carefully managed gardens. There is a discussion of how the group has modified landscape through forest management in the highlands of Parima. Savannah areas are created in certain regions due to soil erosion and the use of fire. Gardens are interspersed with forest and savannah areas.
105. Southgate, D. and Runge, C.F. 1990. The institutional origins of deforestation in Latin America. AAE Staff Paper P90-5. Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, USA.
REGIONAL and ECUADOR The authors analyse the crisis of deforestation in Latin America, using Ecuador as a case study. They present a tenure regime on forested lands in Ecuador and analyse four institutional incentives for deforestation in that country and elsewhere. They argue that ideologists of the right and of the left miss the point, in that there is no single tenurial arrangement to solve deforestation.
106. SPFEQR. 1988. La participaci6n campesina en el Plan Piloto Forestal de Quintana Roo. [Peasant participation in the Forestry Pilot Plan in Quintana Roo.] Sociedad de Productores Forestales Ejidales de Quintana Roo. Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO An account prepared by the forestry peasant organization of their experiences in the Plan Piloto. They discuss the origins of the programme and describe the timber extraction, marketing and industrialization aspects of the operation. They also present the organizational structure and administrative aspects, the financing and the distribution of benefits and job opportunities for the participating communities.
107. Stanley, D.L. 1990. Communal forest management: the Honduran resin tappers. A case study prepared for the Inter-American Foundation. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
HONDURAS Stanley analysed the Honduran resin-tapping movement during a 2-month field study to assess the sustainability of community-based management of forest resources. The report provides an overview of the Honduran Federation of Agroforestry Cooperatives (FECAFOR), including its organizational history and an analysis of the ecological rationale of resin tapping. The author also conducts an overall economic and social feasibility analysis of cooperatives through in-depth case studies of a highly successful cooperative and a largely unsuccessful one. There are three main constraints on resin tapper cooperatives:
108. Steinlin, H. 1981. Contribucion de la economia forestal al mejoramiento de la situacion economica y de las condiciones de vida en las areas rurales tropicales y subtropicales. [Contributions of forest economy for the improvement of living standard in tropical and subtropical rural areas.] Pp. 9-32, in Alternativas para el use del suelo en areas forestales del tropico humedo. Publication Especial 26. Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos, Mexico City, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO This is a critical evaluation of the conventional policies and practices of forest exploitation in tropical areas. The author suggests that communal forest economy should be added to the conventional management of natural forests and introduction of tree plantations.
109. Stocks, A. 1988. Fragile lands development and the Palcazu Project in Eastern Peru. IDA Working Paper 34. Clark University, Worcester, USA, and Institute for Development Anthropology, Binghamton, NY, USA.
PERU The author describes a USAID development programme in the Palcazu Valley, Eastern Peru. The goal of the project was to promote development of the area that would utilize sustainable methods of resource exploitation. Forest management was a major part of the project programme. Amuesha Indians formed a cooperative to manage timber resources. Cooperative members mapped the land to decide what land would be put into forest production.
110. Stoeger, E.N. and Galletti, H.A. 1987. Evaluacion de recursos forestales en selvas tropicales y su relacion con comunidades rurales. [Evaluation of forest resources in tropical jungles and its relation to rural communities.] Pp. 343-347, in Proceedings of the international conference and workshop, Land and Resource Evaluation for National Planning in the Tropics. USDA-Forest Service/FAO/SARH, Publication GTR WO-39. Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico. (In Spanish.)
MEXICO Drawing from the experience of the Plan Piloto Forestal de Quintana Roo, Mexico, this paper argues that resource evaluation cannot be separated the context of utilization. Two implications of this approach are that evaluation is a dynamic process subordinated to the silvicultural management of the forest, and that a local population needs to be directly involved in the evaluation process. The authors describe a methodology to carry out forest inventories, and estimating costs.
111. Suarez F.G. 1989.Reservas extractivas: conceptos y opciones. [Extractive reserves: concepts and options.] Medio Ambiente (Lima, Peru) 41:44-47. (In Spanish.)
PERU The author provides a framework with which to analyse the incorporation of extractive reserves in Peru, and discusses the objectives of the reserves and how they fit into the 1975 Forest and Fauna Law. A list of the different type of resource management zones in Peru is provided, and the types of land use in these areas. There is a discussion of where an extractive reserve would fit into various types of areas. The author concludes that reservas comunales would be the most suitable areas for the incorporation of an extractive reserve.
112. Synnott, T. 1989. South America and the Caribbean. Pp. 75-116, in Poore, D. (ed.), No Timber without Trees: Sustainability in the Tropical Forest. LIED/ Earthscan, London, UK.
REGIONAL This is a chapter of the book based on a study conducted for the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) by the International Institute for Environment and Development (LIED). The author analyses the cases of Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago. He concludes that the only known case of sustained yield management of timber is in Trinidad.
113. Thrupp, L.A. 1989. Legitimization of local knowledge: 'scientized packages' or empowerment for Third World people. Pp. 138-153, in Warren, M. et al. (eds.) Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. Studies in Technology and Social Change 11. Iowa State University, Ames, USA.
GENERAL In this paper the author presents the sociopolitical, institutional and ethical aspects regarding the role of indigenous knowledge in research and development programmes. The paper suggests that the recognition and legitimization of local knowledge helps to the empowerment of rural people and their organizations.
114. Veblen, T. 1978. Forest Preservation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Geographical Review 68(4):417-434.
GUATEMALA Veblen examines Totonicapin, a department of Guatemala that has been an area of dense settlement and intense agricultural activity and forest exploitation, yet still contains extensive pine forests. Veblen argues that the institution of communal forest holdings has favored preservation of the forests of the region. Whereas forestland that is privately owned can easily be cleared to provide more land for milpa, the members of communities who depend on the income generated from woodcutting and carpentry have effectively prevented the clearing of their communal forests.
115. Wiff, M. 1984. Honduras: women make a start in agroforestry. Unasylva 36:21-27.
HONDURAS Sociocultural constraints in Honduras prevent women from participing in terracing and reforestation schemes. Women are viewed primarily as housewives and child-bearers, and men lose face if their wives are seen working. This barrier has been partially overcome in a project implemented by the Forest Department Corporation in which older women are involved. Access to credit and education is critical for women's involvement.
116. WRI. 1990. World Resources Report 1990-1991. World Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA.
REGIONAL This publication is a biannual compilation of statistics and analyses about worldwide resources. The focus for the 1990-91 issue is Latin America.
117. WWF. 1989. The Yanesha Forestry Coop, Peru: a sustainable forest management demonstration project. World Wildlife Fund, Washington DC, USA.
PERU This work discusses on the Yanesha Forestry Cooperative in the Palcazu Valley, Peru. States that USAID stopped providing funding for the cooperative after violence against USAID in Peru by the Shining Path anti-government movement forced them to restrict their activities in rural areas. There is a brief discussion of the forest management system developed by Gary Hartshorn.
118. WWF. 1988. The Boscosa Project: 1988 Annual Report and 1989 Work Plan. World Wildlife Fund, Washington DC, USA.
COSTA RICA This work discusses the Boscosa Project in Costa Rica by WWF near Corcovado National Park, whose key elements include community land use planning, local participation in decision making, natural forest management, agroforestry, and environmental education.
119. Zabin, C.A. 1989. Grassroots development in indigenous communities: a case study from the Sierra Juarez in Oaxaca, Mexico. PhD Dissertation. Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
MEXICO This dissertation focusses on the role of economics in promoting ethnic development in a region of Mexico. It includes two chapters in which the author analyses the impacts of the profound integration of the Sierra Juarez with the national economy. For the purposes of this bibliography, this document offers very interesting insights to the management of forest resources in the area.
120. Zimmermann, T. 1986. Agroforestry - a last hope for conservation in Haiti? Agroforestry Systems 4:255-268.
HAITI This is a technical discussion of agroforestry techniques for reduction of hillside erosion in Haiti. The author discusses an agroforestry programme in Haiti designed to diversify and increase agricultural production of small farmers. PVO involved in the project organized small farmers into groups to engage in the implementation of the programme. Groups are linked with an extension agent who helps with technical problems.