After careful consideration of the objectives for developing CFR management systems, three major sets of factors stand out for their roles in the successful implementation of such schemes:
1. SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND INSTITUTIONS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL
Local conditions which are generally conducive to common resource management include:
2. LAND USE AND FOREST UTILIZATION CHARACTERISTICS
Common forest management seems to offer most scope for further development under the following conditions:
3. STATE INSTITUTIONS
The further development of common forest management is favoured by the presence of the following certain state institutions:
Successful common forest management is conditioned by all of these factors and all of them operate in conjunction, rather than independently. Many of these conditional factors are dynamic, rather than static. To be sustainable, CFR management systems must, therefore, be amenable to regular adaptation to social and institutional change.
Altogether 132 references, mostly articles and books, were used in this study and are annotated below. In compiling the materials, the authors utilized library collections at the Agricultural University Wageningen, the Netherlands and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London. Also consulted were the bibliography in Fortmann and Riddell (1985) and the CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux) bibliography data-base. Extensive use of the literature review and state-of-knowledge report on CPRM in India by Arnold and Stewart (1989) is also acknowledged. We wish to thank the librarians and staff of the various institutions for their assistance.
1. Acharya, H.P. 1989. Jirel property arrangements and the management of forest and pasture resources in highland Nepal. Development Anthropology Network 7 (2):16-25. Institute for Development Anthropology, Binghamton, USA.
NEPAL The author examines the major aspects of property arrangements in and around the Jiri river valley in Dolakha District and the impact of these arrangements on forest and pasture management. In Jiri, property rights to wood and fodder are very complex and cannot be well comprehended by lumping them grossly as "forests" and "pastures", or as "communal", "private" or "state property". Not only are additional forms of ownership (e.g. joint and cooperative) widespread but rights differ according to the particular resource, kinship, residence, purpose, previous use and season.
The author describes the influence of government rules and acts, the joint ownership system and usufruct rights, symbolic methods of protection, the, management of conflicts, property arrangements in the neighbourhood and some policy implications. Even with increased external pressures, the Jirel people have maintained a balance between the use of wood and its sustainable availability in the forest. The diversified and differentiated property arrangements practised by the Jirel people have positive effects on use, availability, distribution and conflicts associated with forest and pasture resources and should be supported and strengthened.
2. Agrawal, B. 1986. Cold hearths and barren slopes: the woodfuel crisis in the Third World. Studies in Economic Development and Planning 40. Institute of Economic Growth, New Delhi, India.
GENERAL With depleting forests and shrinking supplies of firewood, a vast section of the developing world dependent upon woodfuels for domestic energy is facing a crisis. Evidence from Asia, Africa and Latin America is used to analyse the scale of the crisis, its consequences and solutions offered for its alleviation. Attempts to promote afforestation and improved wood burning stoves are found to have had little success, largely due to socio-economic inequalities and the poverty characterizing developing world societies. Based on empirical evidence, a case is made for following a participatory approach in such schemes, involving the rural poor and, especially, women. The importance of community land use priorities and prevailing land distribution patterns when initiating social forestry is stressed. The role of emerging movements among the rural poor in pressing for change at the grassroots level is considered.
3. Anonymous. 1922. Desaboschjes. [Small village forests.] Tectona 15:77-78. (In Dutch.)
INDONESIA In 1922, at Ngawi, Java, a village forest of 5 ha was established under a forestry service initiative on forest land unsuitable for agriculture. The forest was managed by the local village. Villagers were allowed to harvest timber for local or commercial use. Forest grazing was forbidden. Overall supervision and control was exercised by the district forest officer.
4. Applegate, G.B. and Gilmour, D.A. 1987. Operational experiences in forest management development in the hills of Nepal. ICIMOD Occasional Paper. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
NEPAL The authors discuss relations between forests and the mixed farming systems in the middle hills and review recent developments in forestry, particularly in light of experiences of the Nepal-Australia Forestry Project (NAFP). Farming systems are heavily dependent on the forest which is being rapidly depleted. The long-term sustainability of farming systems in their current forms depends on a substantial increase in the area under some form of tree cover. Community forestry programmes established during recent years have produced heartening results but the scope and vision of these projects must be greatly expanded if they are to have any lasting impact. Almost all uncultivated land capable of supporting trees will need to be managed for tree crops. If forest management is to be carried out directly for the local people, it is only logical that management be carried out by the local people, albeit with guidance from those with technical expertise.
5. Arnold, J.E.M., Bergman, A. and Djurfeldt, G. 1987. Forestry for the poor? An evaluation of the SIDA supported social forestry project in Tamil Nadu, India. SIDA Evaluation Report Series 1987/8. Swedish International Development Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
INDIA Objectives, performance and achievements, and assumptions underlying a social forestry project in India are reviewed in relation to silviculture, ecology, economics, sociology and project management. Although 158,000 ha of plantations were established on communal lands (71 percent of target), survival rates and yields have been very poor. So far the project has had little effect on the target groups of villagers (landless, small and marginal farmers, women and children). One of the assumptions underlying the project concerns the previous use of CPRs. The authors conclude that conflicts over the use of CPRs were handled too easily and the complexities of changing use of the common lands and resources were over-estimated.
6. Arnold, J.E.M. and Campbell, J.G. 1986. Collective management of hill forests in Nepal: the Community Forestry Development Project. Pp. 425-455, in Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Research Council/BOSTID. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
NEPAL The topic of this paper is the progress made in initiating and institutionalizing community forestry in the hill areas of Nepal through the Community Forestry Development Project (CFDP). The study encompasses an initiative by the Nepal government to provide a widely applicable framework for developing productive local forest management systems suited to current needs, which builds upon local traditions and practices for CFR management. The historical background of the CFDP Project, decision making arrangements, pre-existing local forest management systems, project-based patterns of interaction and outcomes are discussed. Although experiences to date are limited, they are regarded as being quite encouraging.
7. Arnold, J.E.M. and Stewart, W.C. 1989. Common property resource management in India. Report to the World Bank, India Agriculture Division. World Bank, Washington DC, USA.
INDIA The authors review the state-of-knowledge regarding CPRM in India, based on published and unpublished sources and discussions with researchers. In the 19th century, up to two thirds of the land in India was under community control but privatization and government appropriation have reduced this share. Many traditional and indigenous forms of CPRM have weakened or collapsed. The condition of remaining CPRs, factors influencing the value of CPRs, institutional requisites for CPRM and some promising approaches are reviewed. The authors conclude that, despite the erosion of CPRs and CPRM regimes, they still play a very important role in agricultural systems and in the livelihoods of the poor. In order to make progress towards sustainable CPRM it will be necessary to give high priority to correcting policy, legal anomalies and weaknesses which undermine CPRM arrangements or which encourage further privatization.
8. Bahuguna, S. 1988. Chipko: the people's movement with a hope for the survival of humankind. IFDA Dossier No. 63:3-14. International Foundation for Development Alternatives, Geneva, Switzerland.
INDIA This paper describes the philosophy of the chipko movement in India, whose members "hug" trees to prevent them being felled and who have revived traditional agroforestry. In the countrywide debate on new forest policy, the movement's stand is:
9. Ballabh, V. and Singh, K. 1988. Managing forests through people's institutions: a case study of van panchayats in Uttar Pradesh hills. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 43(3):296-304.
INDIA The historical evolution, organizational structure, management, resource utilization and enforcement of regulations of four forest councils van panchayats) in India are discussed. Forest councils have the authority to levy fines for misuse of forest resources and collect fees from users. They are responsible for internal management and grazing, the collection of fuelwood, fodder and for protection. Forest Council members are informally elected and produce is distributed fairly among the members of the village community. Although the authority to levy fees and fines and to punish offenders has been reduced because of rule changes, this method of forest management is considered promising.
10. Basu, N.G. 1987. Forests and tribals. Manisha Granthalaya, Calcutta, India, 196 pp.
INDIA Forest problems are analysed from the point of view of forestdwelling communities. A new forest policy with a new outlook for management is suggested to arrest further denudation of the forests and to enlist people's participation in the forest regeneration movement. The study is based on formal and participatory research and on demonstrative experiments in the forest zones of India. Case studies of forest village dwellers in eight villages of West Bengal and three in Ranchi District, Bihar, are presented. They include accounts of women headloaders on the Chotanagpur Plateau of Bihar, a community forestry management project and utilization of common lands.
11. Basu, N.G. 1984. Community forestry and the local community. Pp. 193-204, in Strategies and designs for afforestation, reforestation and tree planting: proceedings of an international symposium on the occasion of 100 years of forestry education and research in the Netherlands, Wageningen, 19-23 September 1983. Wageningen, Netherlands.
INDIA The importance of non-governmental or private voluntary organizations (NGOs, PVOs) in the successful development of community forestry is discussed in the context of a case study from Bero, in Bihar. Some 120 villages there are inhabited mostly by tribal people, where deforestation has reduced the land still under forest to 12-15 percent. Some villages have independently initiated schemes for protecting and developing the remaining natural forest. The catalytic role of local NGOs in stimulating further development of communal forest management is noted.
12. Bentley, W.R., Singh, G.B. and Chatterjee, N. 1987. Tenure and agroforestry potentials in India. Pp.231-237, in Raintree, J.B. (ed.). Land, trees and tenure: proceedings of an international workshop on Tenure Issues in Agroforestry. International Council on Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya.
INDIA In this article, the degradation of land and tenure problems are briefly described. Current land use and tenure problems can be understood in terms of legal forests, marginal cultivated lands and commons or revenue lands. The authors conclude that there are tenurial insecurities on at least 100 million ha of cultivated and common lands. Clarification and assignment of tenure rights could increase productivity and assignment of rights to villagers, organizations and individuals representing the resource-poor or landless offer potential for using the productivity increases to alleviate poverty.
13. Berkes, F. (ed.). 1989. Common property resources: ecology and community-based sustainable development. Belhaven Press, London, UK.
GENERAL This is a wide-ranging survey of the role and importance of natural resources held in common ownership and the issues raised by their conservation as a key element of sustainable economic development. Theoretical problems and case studies are presented by several authors.
14. Bista, R.B., Sivapati, B.B. and Shrestha, S.M. 1986. Forest management and utilization. A special report submitted to the CFDP, Study Group B. Community Forestry Development Project, Kathmandu, Nepal.
NEPAL This report deals with the process of management plan preparation and implementation in the Community Forestry Development Project (CFDP). Indigenous forest management systems are reviewed together with the current state of people's participation in the management planning process. Two examples of local forest management through informal village committees are given. The scope and functions of management plans are reviewed. A brief description of experience with management plan formulation and implementation is also given.
15. Blaikie, P. and Brookfield, H. 1987. The degradation of common property resources: common property resources and degradation worldwide. Pp. 186-196, in Blaikie, P. and Brookfield, H. (eds.). Land degradation and society. Methuen, London, UK.
GENERAL The authors describe how and why CPRs are particularly vulnerable to induced degradation. The paper provides a definition of CPRs and describes a framework which links resources to management. Social interaction between users and outcomes in terms of maintenance or degradation of resources, relations between private and common lands and the role of the state are discussed. Changes in CPR decision making and management are analysed.
16. Blaikie, P., Harris, J.C. and Pain, A.N. 1986. The management and use of common property resources in Tamil Nadu, India. Pp.481-504, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
INDIA This study focuses on land-based CPRs, like fuel, fodder and other forest products, in Tamil Nadu. The commons in Tamil Nadu are those lands defined as:
Field investigations at the village level show that there is a good deal of diversity regarding the importance of CPRs in the economy. The CPR is analysed according to the model of Oakerson , paying particular attention to technical and physical attributes, decision making arrangements and patterns of interaction.
17. Blair, H. 1987. Local government and rural development in the Bengal sundarbans: an inquiry in managing common property resources. Paper prepared for the Smithsonian Institution/SSRC/ACLS Sundarbans Workshop, Washington DC. Smithsonian Institution and Joint Committee on South Asia of the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, Washington DC, USA.
BANGLADESH and INDIA The Bengal sundarbans constitute the one remaining major natural resource of Bangladesh and India's West Bengal region that has not been fully exploited. The area of the sundarbans appears to have been both expanding and contracting over the years. It contains usable forest species, including a wide variety of mangroves. Population pressure and the economic value of sundarban resources, however, threaten the resource; an immensely valuable CPR is in grave danger. In order to forestall over-exploitation, one possible approach is to encourage local authorities to manage the resource in their own long term interest by treating it as a CPR for sustained yield. The potentials and outlooks for CPRM in Bangladesh and, specifically, for the sundarbans are examined.
18. van Blitteswijk, J.D. 1985. Non-governmental organizations and social forestry in India. Department of Forest Management, Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands.
INDIA A review of the literature, including a list of non-governmental organizations involved in forestry activities. A case history of the efforts of the Ranchi Consortium for Community Forestry, Bihar, is included. The consortium was established to stimulate community forestry activities.
19. Bloch, P.C. and Oesterberg, T. 1989. Land tenure and allocation situation and policy in Viet Nam, with special reference to the Forest Development Area (Vinh Phu, Hoang Lien Son and Ha Tuyen Provinces). A report to SIDA. Swedish International Development Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
VIET NAM This is a joint assessment (the first of its kind) of the current situation regarding land tenure and policy and land allocation with special reference to the Forestry Development Area in three provinces in which SIDA is working with the Vietnamese government. The report is divided into several parts, including recent policy reform, recommendations for reconsideration of regulations and policy, recommended policy studies prior to and during the project period, cadastral activities, assessment of land allocation policy and proposals on project activities. The authors provide ample evidence of the difficulties of top-down intervention in land and tree resource management at the local level without due attention to local tradition, experience and capabilities and without the necessary assistance to help collective groups and farmers deal with the technical problems.
20. Bogahawatte, C. 1986. Erosion of common property resources: evidence from villages in the dry zone districts of Sri Lanka. Agricultural Administration 23(4):191-199.
SRI LANKA CPRs form a major agricultural resource base in the villages of Sri Lanka but they have deteriorated in recent years. This research study was conducted in two districts to investigate the major causes. The irregular felling of trees for timber and the clearing and burning of forests for rainfed rotational cultivation were evident. Over-grazing of communal pastures is not a serious problem due to the low cattle and buffalo population. Income from CPRs is significant in the drier districts.
21. Brinkman, W. 1988. Village woodlots and other approaches to community forestry as means of rural development: the case of Ban Pong, Sri Saket, Northeast Thailand. MSc student paper. Department of Forest Management, Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands.
THAILAND This paper presents a detailed qualitative case study of the village of Ban Pong in Sri Saket Province, in Thailand. The research focuses on management and possible use of village woodlots established under a countrywide project on renewable non-conventional energy by the Royal Thai Government and USAID. The set-up and results of the woodlot are critically examined. Villagers did not participate in the planning and no plans for management or for the distribution of benefits were agreed upon. The poorer classes, especially, are heavily dependent on free access to grazing land and forest resources for the collection of fuelwood and fruits. This case illustrates the need for villagers' active involvement in the planning and design of development projects. Social organization and the various interest groups of villagers should be taken into account.
22. Briscoe, J. 1979. Energy use and social structure in a Bangladesh village. Population and Development Review 5(4):615-643.
BANGLADESH Distribution of natural resources in a Bangladeshi village is related to the control over resources and the structure of the social institutions present. The production and distribution of food, fodder, fuel and fertilizer is examined in a village sample. The findings show that traditional patron-client relationships, through which the poor and landless used to gain access to fuels such as crop residues from rich landowners' fields, have broken down. Under the current system, distribution of land and other resources takes place among people of the same class. The poor, particularly the Hindu minority, are constrained by this arrangement. The bulk of income of such families is spent on food and the increasing amount of money spent on fuel increases their deprivation. Introduction of energy-saving technologies would be ineffective due to the control of resources and power by the richer members of the community.
23. Brokensha, D. 1988. Village-level management of common property resources, especially fuelwood and fodder resources, in Karnataka, India. A report to the World Bank, Washington DC, USA.
INDIA This report is based on a tour in Karnataka State, supplemented by interviews and selected reading. The author discusses CPRs and considers a wide range of socio-economic and biophysical factors. The common lands of Karnataka include gomal lands, tank foreshores and "wastelands". Most common lands are degraded. A report by N.S. Jodha is summarized in some detail and important CPRM issues are addressed. The author concludes that CPRs cannot be examined in isolation. Without participation in decision making and management of social forestry projects there is no social forestry. While Karnataka's social forestry programme is not a failure, it can be improved.
24. Brokensha, D. 1986. Local management systems and sustainability. Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the Society for Economic Anthropology, Riverside, USA.
GENERAL The essence of this paper is the "fit" between "new things" (specifically agricultural policies and innovations) and "customs" (local systems and natural resource management). It is organized in four sections:
25. Brokensha, D. and Castro, A.H.P. 1987. Common property resources. Background paper for the expert consultation on Forestry and Food Production/ Security, Bangalore, India. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
INDIA The authors introduce and define the subject of CPRs and review relevant literature. General trends are considered: rapid population growth, commercialization of resources, state intervention and privatization. Several case studies are presented in which opinions about CPR regimes are developed and illustrated. In addition to case studies from Africa (Kenya and Niger), a study from the drylands of India is given. The authors present ten conclusions on the value of CPRs and on the possibilities and requisites of successful CPRM.
26. Bromley, D.W. 1986. On common property regimes. A paper presented at the ICIMOD/EAPUAKRSP workshop on Institutional Development for Local Management of Rural Resources, Gilgit, Pakistan. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
GENERAL and REGIONAL The author establishes the basic terms and concepts essential for discussing CPRM systems. For collective goods, those provided by groups for their own benefit, management systems require not only appropriate institutional arrangements (property rights) but also organizational arrangements (group management structures) which, together, create the common property regimes. The functions of CPR regimes are discussed, including defining who is a member of the group and how decisions are made. Four criteria for success of CPR regimes are recognized:
(Also summarized in 39.)
27. Bromley, D.W. and Chapagain, D.P. 1984. The village against the center: resource depletion in South Asia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 66:868-873.
NEPAL and REGIONAL A review of the institutional aspects that define there source use behaviour of villagers in South Asia. The tensions between the village and the centre are discussed in terms of different priorities in resource use, objectives regarding that use and the means for addressing conflicts among users at the local level or between local and outside levels.
The nationalization of all forest lands in Nepal in 1957 is taken as an example, and the priorities and objectives of resource use of 140 people in a Nepali village are examined and discussed. The authors conclude that there exists a certain "background ethic" or norm that influences collective resource use decisions. This ethic is threatened by growing population pressure and by a national government passing laws and formulating administrative policies by which resource stewardship is shifted away from the village.
28. Campbell, J.G. 1980. Outstanding social issues in the proposed Madhya Pradesh Social Forestry Project. A report to the U.S. Agency for International Development, New Delhi, India.
INDIA The state of Madhya Pradesh gives a large percentage of usufruct rights on state land free. Revenue lands are freely available for unlimited grazing unless claimed by the government or panchayat (local council) for some particular project. Traditional access rights (nistar) give unlimited grazing and minor forest collection rights to rural residents in forests classified as protected and even in the remaining forests classified as reserved. The government reserves to itself the right of cutting any of the most valuable tree and bamboo species existing on private lands. Management of public lands almost exclusively consists in protecting the division of harvesting rights within the same lands between the government and the people. There is a high degree of ambiguity about the ownership rights on uncultivated revenue land, illegally occupied revenue land and illegally operated forest land.
29. Campbell, J.G., Shrestha, R.P., and Euphrat, F. 1987. Socio-economic factors in traditional forest use and management: preliminary results from a study of community forest management in Nepal. Banko Janakari 1(4):45-54. Department of Forests, Kathmandu, Nepal.
NEPAL This paper presents preliminary results of a survey conducted in four hill districts of the Community Forestry Development Project (CFDP). Questionnaires and sample plots were used. Data indicate that the forests benefit from active local user management. Improvements to the forest are associated with local harvesting controls devised by the communities dealing with time and area limitations, and the tools allowed; continuing deterioration of the forest is associated with traditional government controls such as user fees and tree marking for felling.
(This article is one in a special issue of Banko Janakari on Forests for the People, based on the community forestry experience in Nepal.)
30. Cernea M.M. 1985. Alternative units of social organization sustaining afforestation strategies. Pp. 267-293, in Cernea, M.M. (ed.). Putting people first: sociological variables in rural development. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
PAKISTAN Social forestry has often come to grief through lack of forethought and caution with respect to the unit of social organization to sustain afforestation. In the first part of this article, the objectives and defects of the Azad Kashmir Hill Farming Technical Development (FTD) Project are analysed. Important sociological factors ignored in the implementation of this World Bank co-financed project include:
Contrary to expectations, community land (shamilat) appeared not to be truly community land but was often operated and used as private land. In the second part of the article, the author analyses collective vs. individual innovation and describes various units of social organization (e.g. communities, associations and small groups) capable of being social actors in forestry management and development programmes. Establishing afunctional social group implies a process of self-selection by members, a willingness for association and participation, a perception of both self-advantage and co-responsibility and the establishment of an enduring social structure with well-defined functions. The author provides a framework for the analysis of sociostructural variables in social forestry programmes. Land tenure and patterns of group organization are particularly important.
31. Cernea, M.M. 1981. Land tenure systems and social implications of forestry development programs. World Bank Staff Working Paper 452. World Bank, Washington DC, USA.
PAKISTAN This report describes a World Bank project on common lands in which initial assumptions to contrary, community control of the project lands had been supplanted over time by individual wealthy families who now controlled the land and therefore were the project's main beneficiaries. This experience provides clear warning about the necessity of determining the de facto as well as the de jure status of land. (See also annotation 30.)
32. Chandrakanth, M.G., Gilless, J.K., Gowramma, V. and Nagaraja, M.G. 1990. Temple forests in India's forest development. Agroforestry Systems 11(3):199-211.
INDIA Historically different types of temple forests were present in India and served many spiritual and religious purposes. These forests included star forests which facilitated the worship of stars personified in specific tree species; nine planet forests in which trees representing the planets, which are considered to control a person's destiny, can be worshipped; and the zodiac forests in which trees representing the 12 zodiac signs are planted. In most cases, these forests are managed by religious institutions or community groups. Active creation and promotion of temple forests could contribute to the maintenance and extension of forest resources.
33. Chakravarti, R. 1976. Forestry for the masses. Forest Resources Survey, Bhopal, India.
INDIA Nistar refers to traditional access rights to forest produce such as fuelwood, timber and bamboo. In the latter half of the 19th century, it was the general practice in India to allot to each village an area of forest and "wasteland" limited to twice the area of the cultivated land of the village. All forests in excess of this were designated as reserved forests and brought under the Indian Forest Act, except in some tribal areas where no use rights were regulated. Under population pressure, people turned to the reserve forests to meet their nistar requirements.
34. Chapagain, D.P. 1984. Managing public lands as a common property resource: a case study in Nepal. PhD Dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
35. Ciriancy-Wantrup, S.V. and Bishop, R.C. 1975. "Common property" as a concept in natural resources policy. Natural Resources Journal 15:713-727.
GENERAL Institutions based on the concept of "common property" have played socially beneficial roles in natural resource management from economic pre-history up to the present. These same institutions promise help in solving pressing resource problems in both the developed and developing countries. This article discusses the policy implications of common property in the solution of natural resource policy problems. The article reviews common property as a social institution, the social framework of common property institutions and the commons in economic history.
36. Colfer, C.J.P. 1980. Change and indigenous agroforestry in East Kalimantan. Bornea Research Bulletin 15(1-2):3-20, 70-86.
INDONESIA In describing the gathering of minor forest products, the author indicates that these are considered free goods available to be taken by anyone. These rights, however, are not dealt with specifically. Contracts between the government and timber companies specify that people are free to utilize the forests in their "customary manner", including using trees for house building. This right is sometimes used to justify timber harvesting for sale, on the theory that nails and other goods must be bought to finish a house. Ironwood is the species about which the most conflict and confusion exists, as it is not owned by the timber concession holder. Yet it holds a prominent place in the traditional timber use patterns in the area.
37. Conklin, H.C. 1980. Ethnographic atlas of the Ifugao: a study of environment, culture and society in northern Luzon. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
PHILIPPINES This atlas provides a detailed description of interrelations between forest, food and water among Ifugao wet rice terrace builders and swidden-fallow cultivators of the Cordillera, Central Luzon. It contains many maps, descriptions of relations between land and society and a detailed analysis of the ritually monitored agricultural year. Forest use and management systems are described. Distinctions between privately owned woodlots and the open access forest are described. The forest is open to use by all who share the watershed, for timber and fuelwood extraction and for hunting. It can also be converted to swidden. Outsiders are not allowed to use local forest resources. The most cogent rationale behind these rules lies in Ifugao awareness of the ecological functions of wooded land.
38. Dani, A.A. and Campbell, J.C. 1986. Sustaining upland resources: people's participation in watershed management. ICIMOD Occasional Paper 3. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
REGIONAL A conceptual framework is provided for documenting, analysing and evaluating people's participation in watershed management activities in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Current land use in upland areas of the region are described. The ways in which 18 different projects in Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal and Pakistan have incorporated and encouraged people's participation are also examined. A number of promising strategies are described, but it is not known which are the most effective under what conditions nor to what extent they are an effective measure. The implications for project design and evaluation are discussed. As a central hypothesis, it is stated that the most efficient way to promote participation is to reinforce existing motives and behaviours that suit the goals. Watershed management must build on upland residents' existing motivations for sustaining their environments through increasing resource value, renewability, security, manageability and equity.
39. Dani, A.A., Gibbs, C.J.N. and Bromley, D.W. 1987. Institutional development for local management of rural resources. EAPI Workshop Report No. 2. Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, USA.
PAKISTAN A report based on presentations and discussions at a workshop held in Gilgit, Northern Pakistan. The workshop aimed at developing a framework for analysing institutional arrangements for collective management of renewable resources at an operational level in mountain regions, at applying the framework in the field and at developing implications and a research agenda for understanding institutional change. The presence of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) in northern Pakistan permitted the workshop to function in an area rich in existing and new forms of resource management. The report describes the region, the AKRSP and the set-up of the workshop. A theoretical approach to CPR regimes is presented. One field trip and discussions are described and recommendations presented. Case studies are summarized in an appendix and abstracted individually.
40. Dorji, D.C., Chavda, B., Thinley, S. and Wangchuk, S. 1986. Social forestry and community action. Pp. 94-102, in Proceedings of the national workshop on the Design and Implementation of Rural Development Strategies and Projects. Thimphu, Bhutan. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
BHUTAN Attention is focused on community forestry as a strategy for ruraldevelopment. Bhutan's forests are used mainly as sources of wood for construction and fencing, of fuel and grazing and of shelter for livestock. They also provide a major part of livestock feed requirements, contribute to local income and employment and play a vital role in conserving soil and water on the
predominant steep, sloping land. In considering social forestry, tree planting by individuals is a major component. There is a distinction between this and social forestry as it is conceived and practised elsewhere. The authors examine social forestry elsewhere and the extent to which it is desirable or feasible for Bhutan.
The idea of social forestry has now been adopted in Bhutan. There is a clear need under the Sixth Plan, however, for a specific social forestry strategy designed to encourage community action, not only for tree planting but also for their subsequent management and controlled utilization. This requires public awareness campaigns and technical advice and assistance, the provision of planting materials and consideration of social and economic aspects.
41. Dove, M.R. 1983. Theories of swidden agriculture, and the political economy of ignorance. Agroforestry Systems 1:85-99.
INDONESIA Swidden agriculture is the focus of a great deal of debate in the context of agroforestry development in humid, tropical countries. Based on studies in Indonesia, the author argues that much of the debate deals not with the empirical facts of swidden agriculture but with widely accepted myths that explain the widespread failures of developmental schemes involving swidden agriculturalists. Three myths are discussed in some detail:
The origins of each myth are discussed and the myths analysed and debunked.
Such myths have facilitated the extension of external administration and exploitation into the territories of swidden agriculturalists and can perhaps be explained as a reflection of the political economy of the larger societies in which they are found.
42. Dove, M.R. 1980. Development of tribal land rights in Borneo: the role of ecological factors. Borneo Research Bulletin 2(1):3-19.
INDONESIA This article deals with the dynamic nature of land tenure arrangements in shifting cultivation systems of the Kantu in Kalimantan. Originally, swiddening took place in natural forest areas but after cessation of tribal warfare, secondary forest areas were utilized, being easier to farm. Gradually, households began to claim use rights to specific swidden and fallow areas for themselves. With growing population pressure on the land, these rights were extended to the next generation.
43. Dove, M.R. and Rao, A.L. 1986. Common property resource management in Pakistan: Garrett Hardin in the j unglat. EAPI Discussion Paper. Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA.
PAKISTAN and INDIA Hardin's "tragedy of the commons" is analysed in the context of three case studies from South Asia. The analysis suggests that Hardin's argument is incorrect since, in Bromley's terms, it applied to open access resources, not common property. The authors describe two social forestry projects in Pakistan and suggest that utilizing existing, traditional but still powerful local institutions provides possible solutions to the problems of creating new institutional arrangements. Three case studies in traditional CPRM are given:
These cases demonstrate the capacity of CPR systems to promote sustainable use of environmental resources when supported by strong, traditional tribal sanctions. When traditional institutional arrangements are removed, people abandon the balanced use of natural resources. (See also annotation 38.)
44. FAO. 1985. Tree growing by rural people. FAO Forestry Paper 64. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
GENERAL Local tree growing activities are increasing in importance as the principle means of maintaining needed supplies of forest products. In recent years, programmes to encourage and support rural people in these efforts have become one of the principle tasks of forest services. This study brings together the accumulated wisdom. It aims at assembling a clearer picture of the different circumstances in which the growth, management and use of trees and tree outputs is of benefit to rural people and also indicates effective ways in which support can be provided. The report describes current activities of community forestry in Nepal and India and the prerequisites for successful community forestry programmes based on those experiences.
45. Fernandes, W. 1987. Afforestation programmes, voluntary action and community organization. Social Action 37(3):275-295.
INDIA This is a revised version of a paper presented at the World Congress of Sociology held in New Delhi in 1986. The author studied a number of afforestation projects carried out by voluntary organizations in different parts of India (Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra). Different types of organization were deliberately chosen, large and small, successful and unsuccessful. Some organizations view plantations only as an income-generating activity so that their decision making processes (the species chosen and other procedures), while making the plantation scheme successful, do not necessarily help the marginalized peoples in their process of community building.
46. Fisher, R.J. and Gilmour, D.A. 1990. Putting the community at the center of community forestry research. A paper prepared for the seminar on Research Policy for Community Forestry, Bangkok. Regional Community Forestry Training Centre (RECOFTC), Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.
GENERAL The major blockages to the successful implementation of community forestry are social (specifically institutional and organizational) rather than technical. It is argued that research should focus on implementation of community forestry and attempt to resolve those social (human) problems. Community forestry calls for the village users to be the forest managers, with assistance and advice from forest technicians. Thus, they should be at the centre of all aspects of research activities - problem identification, research action, adaptation of solutions on-farm or in-forest and evaluation. This sort of research will require genuine interdisciplinary cooperation between specialists and a revamping of current research methodology. (Authors' summary.)
47. Fisher, R.J., Singh, H.B., Pandey, D.R. and Lang, H. 1989. The management of forest resources in rural development: a case study of Sindhu Palchok and Kabhre Palanchok District of Nepal. ICIMOD Mountain Populations and Development Discussion Paper 1. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
NEPAL This report explores the nature of village level forest resource management in the Nepal-Australia Forestry Project areas. The authors discuss some of the processes involved in external interventions and propose ways in which project activities can be modified to build on existing institutions. The study examines the institutional basis for effective local management of forest resources. In the two districts, indigenous forest management systems are found to be relatively common, and they are often effective, particularly as protection regimes. Institutionalized norms, based on a degree of consensus among users, are the essence of all indigenous forest management systems. The absence of organizational structures does not necessarily mean that no management systems exist. One of the most striking findings is that the indigenous forest management systems have only recently developed (since 1950). The systems provide a model for viable local resource management institutions. In externally sponsored systems, formal organizations often exist without institutionalized norms or roles and, therefore, do not function effectively. When setting up forest management systems, one should note existing use rights or make sure that there is an adequate institutional basis for local organization.
48. Foley, G. and Barnard, G. 1984. Farm and community forestry. Technical
Report 3. Energy Information Programme. Earthscan, London, UK.
REGIONAL This report provides a systematic appraisal of the experience to date with community forestry. It describes the main lessons that have been learned and analyses the factors which determine the scope and impact of programmes under local conditions. Part I presents main conclusions of the study, an overview of the prospects for farm and community forestry and the problems that have been encountered. Part II discusses the context within which farm and community forestry must work. It analyses the forces causing tree depletion and examines the reasons why people plant or are constrained from planting trees. Part III describes the main approaches taken in programmes to date and discusses the local factors determining their scope and limitations. It includes chapters on community forestry and land allocation schemes. Part IV covers key aspects of programme design and implementation, including technical problems, wood demand patterns, the role of extension services and programme planning requirements. Part V summarizes the experience in eight countries where major programmes have been undertaken. (For a summary, see the Social Forestry Network Paper lb. 1985. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.)
49. Fortmann, L. and Bruce, J.W. (eds.). 1988. Whose trees?: proprietary dimensions of forestry. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
GENERAL This derives from work at the Land Tenure Centre (University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA) and ICRAF (Nairobi, Kenya) to identify, review and annotate the literature on rights in trees and land with trees and the impact of those rights on planting and conservation of trees. The book begins with an essay on why tree and land tenure matter and concludes with a discussion of the "daily struggle" for rights in trees and land with trees. In Chapters 2-8, the authors provide excerpts and whole works from 39 sources worldwide. Each piece begins with a short annotation. The topics are tree tenure, tree and tenure interactions, communities and trees, tenure and deforestation, tenure and afforestation, the gender division of tenure and the state and the forest.
50. Fortmann, L. and Riddell, J. 1985. Trees and tenure: an annotated bibliography for agroforesters and others. The Land Tenure Center, Madison, USA, and International Council on Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya.
GENERAL An annotated bibliography on aspects of tree and land tenure. Land tenure is regarded as one of the most important institutional arrangements in agroforestry projects. In the introduction, the authors briefly state some important dimensions of the relationship between land and tree tenure and the implications of this relationship for sound project planning.
51. Fox, J.M. 1983. Managing public lands in a subsistence economy: the perspective from a Nepali village. PhD dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
NEPAL Fox describes the public and private lands of a village in Nepal and how they are used for meeting farm needs. The study documents the practices (agriculture, grazing and forestry) that compete in using public lands and the relations of these practices to land degradation. He determines whether present need, distribution of benefits and labour requirements could influence the cooperation of farmers with controls on public land use. Subsistence farming in Nepal is based on a close relationship between people, land, livestock and the forest. Major implications of the study for public land use management are discussed and a general strategy for designing village-level land use plans is presented.
52. Gadgil, M. and Iyer, P. 1989. On the diversification of common-property resource use by Indian society. Pp. 240-255, in Berkes, F. (ed.). Common property resources: ecology and community-based development. Belhaven Press, London, UK.
INDIA Traditionally, many commonly used resources, such as fuelwood, were controlled by small multi-caste village communities, in which the different caste groups were linked to each otherin aweb of reciprocity. These communal management systems have favoured sustainable use of CPRs until the colonial conquest. British rule led to the disruption of communal organization and converted communally managed resources into open access resources. Pockets of good resource management under communal control, however, have persisted. Characteristic features include acceptance of quantitative quotas, closed seasons, protected life history stages of wildlife, protection of individual tree species, such as fig, and complete protection of specific localities, such as patches of forests. These examples may serve as models for reassertion of communal control of natural resources.
53. Gadgil, M. and V.P. Vartok. 1976. The sacred groves of the Western Ghats in India. Economic Botany 30(3):152-160.
INDIA Traditionally, local people in India have preserved patches of forests of from less than 0.5 ha up to 10 ha as sacred groves under protection of the reigning deity of the grove. The cults associated with these sacred groves originated from hunting-gathering societies, and removal of any product was taboo. With increasing deforestation, these groves have become the last remnants of the natural forest and, thus, are increasingly important for collection of forest products, such as medicinal plants, leaf litter and dead wood. Removal of live wood is mostly still a taboo but, in emergency cases, timber is sometimes harvested. Currently, the groves are owned by private persons or a temple trust, or they are under government control. Formerly there were also inam groves in which no deity resided but which were presented for the collection and sale of fruits and other products by priests; they seem to have been destroyed everywhere.
54. Gamage, D. 1987. Community forestry project: baseline survey. Research Study Series 76. Agrarian Research and Training Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
SRI LANKA The Community Forestry Project was launched in 1982 by the government in order to increase local-level participation in growing miniforests in five districts of the country. This report provides the findings of a detailed survey of two project villages in Badulla district. Baseline socio-economic conditions for the project localities are provided, including the physical environment, demography, employment, income distribution, living conditions, land ownership, agroforestry cultivation, farmers' experiences, sources of fuelwood and timber, attitudes towards forest fires and the farmers' woodlot programme. The conditions and attitudes of non-participant farmers are then outlined by way of contrast.
55. Gibbs, C.J.N. and Bromley, D.W. 1986. Institutional arrangements for sustainable management of rural resources: common property regimes and conservation. Pp. 22-32, in Berkes, F. (ed.). Common property resources: ecology and community-based sustainable development. Belhaven Press, London, UK.
GENERAL The authors first define both resources and property, then discuss the characteristics, functions and performance of common property regimes. They argue that understanding and respecting customary rules and conventions for the management of resources as common property must be increased. These arrangements are of special interest to conservationists, because they have provided access to resources equitably and sustainably at reasonable cost. The paper concludes by relating institutional arrangements to the depletion of renewable resources and arguing for institutional innovation for the future without losing sight of the past.
56. Gilmour, D.A. 1989. Resource availability and indigenous forest management systems in Nepal. EAPI Discussion Paper No.17. East-West Center, Environment and Policy Institute, Honolulu, USA.
NEPAL It is a widely held view that Nepal has undergone widespread deforestation. The reality is that while some parts of the hill regions have lost a great deal of their forest cover, many others are still well covered. It is postulated that villagers respond to shortages of forest products by developing indigenous systems for managing the forests under their control. This happens in spite of the fact that the legal ownership of most of the forests rests with the government. The type of system that arises and the way it develops depends on the "perceived need" of the villagers for particular forest products. A model is described, which explains the various reactions of individuals and community groups in terms of resource accessibility. This also allows insights into why externally sponsored community forestry programmes may succeed or fail.
57. Gilmour, D.A., King, G.C. and Hobley, M. 1989. Management of forests for local use in the hills of Nepal. 1. Changing forest management paradigms. Journal of World Forest Resource Management 4:93-110.
NEPAL This is the first in a series of papers which focus attention on various aspects of forest management as they relate to the hill areas. Since 1950, the government of Nepal has shown a dramatic change in its attitude towards hill forests. Early indifference changed to acute awareness as the extent of deforestation became known and its impact on village life became better understood. The initial reaction was to enforce protection through nationalization legislation but this failed. During the past 28 years, there have been several legislative changes reflecting shifts in policy aimed at handing back the forests and forest management to village users themselves. This change has been accompanied by emergence of anew "people-centred" forestry paradigm as opposed to the earlier "forest-centred" one. The new paradigm became necessary as it was no longer possible to solve the problems of community forestry by remaining with the older paradigm. As the two paradigms presently co-exist, however, there is a potential for misunderstandings and conflicts between their protagonists.
58. Grandstaff, T.B. 1980. Shifting cultivation in Northern Thailand: possibilities for development. Resource Systems Theory and Methodology Series No. 3. United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.
THAILAND Swidden (swidden-fallow) cultivation in Northern Thailand is examined. Private long-term ownership of specific swiddens is rather antithetical to the values of society and to the integrated socio-economic methods by which swiddeners make a living. In areas where established swiddeners already manage discrete village territories, the first priority should be to grant legal land tenure. Usually such rights are already well recognized by these swiddeners but not by permanent-field farmers or other outsiders who may wish to appropriate swidden-fallow lands for their own purposes. Secure tenure is a key need for maintaining good systems on a sound basis. (For a shorter version of this article see Fortmann and Bruce 1988; annotation 50.)
59. Guha, R. 1989. The unquiet woods: ecological change and peasant resistance in the Himalaya. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India.
INDIA The popular chipko ("hug the trees") movement in the Himalayan foothills of North India is internationally renowned as an ostensibly recent attempt by the local people to save a dwindling common resource - the forest - in the face of government policy which allows, even encourages, contract cutting by outsiders for commercial gain. What is less known is the long history of the movement, stretching
back over a hundred years. The author presents a social and ecological history of peasant protest in Tehri Garhwal and Kumaun Districts of Uttar Pradesh. While the history of peasant resistance differs in each case, they both reflect a common "moral economy of provision" in opposition to commercial forestry and a political economy of profit. At one point, the author contrasts forest-based peasant protests in India with those of early capitalist Europe, and challenges Eurocentric theories which hold that peasants and peasant movements will disappear in the modem world. The study suggests that "Western-style industrialization is unlikely to be replicated in the Third World on account of ecological constraints".
60. Haga, B.J. 1933. Inlandsche gemeenten en boschbeheer in de buitengewesten. [Indigenous communities and forest management in the outer provinces.] Tectona 26:517-520. (In Dutch.)
INDONESIA The author advocates leaving the greater part of the forests to be managed by local communities. Forest management by the central government should only be established if the local communities cannot do this satisfactorily. The author believes the forest service should provide advice and help as necessary. Furthermore, the forest service must manage those forests for which preservation is crucial and which cannot be adequately managed by local communities. One observer reacted to Haga by proposing to divide forest management in the following manner: the hydrological forest reserves and production forests for export and regional wood supply would go to the forest service, the remaining forests to local communities (see also 67, 68).
61. Hardin, G. and Baden, J. (eds.). 1977. Managing the Commons. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, USA.
GENERAL An anthology of readings that explore the implications of Hardin's "tragedy of the commons". The "commons" are the world's common resources; the "tragedy" - the "remorseless inherent logic" - is that it is clearly to an individual's advantage to exploit a common resource as thoroughly as possible. The first two parts (Discovering the Commons, and The Growing Awareness) trace the development of the concept of commons, especially with respect to increasing population pressure. The third part (Grappling with the Commons) focuses on ways in which the potentially destructive cultural norm of independence of individual action, regarded as the "cause" of the tragedy, may be changed to promote continued human welfare and survival. Most examples refer to commons in the United States. (Hardin' s "tragedy of the commons" thesis has been variously critiqued and disputed in the literature; see annotations 43, 63, 85; and D.W. Bromley and M.M. Cernea. 1989. The management of common property natural resources: some conceptual and operational fallacies. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA).
62. Hazary, N. and Hazary, S.C. 1987. Community action in environmental conservation: an experiment in Orissa. Pp. 231-266, in Sapru, R.K. (ed.). Environment Management in India, v. II. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
INDIA In this paper the origins and development of a spontaneous movement in villages of the state of Orissa are discussed. The movement was initiated in Kesharpur village of Puri District by the first author, a university lecturer, with the headmaster of a local middle school. They communicated to the villagers the need to conserve forests, which were necessary for the ecological balance of the region. The villagers soon organized themselves to ensure that no grazing or felling of trees took place. At the time of the monsoon, they planted large numbers of trees. For the rest of the year they reared the saplings, protected the plantation and diverted their cattle to other pastures. They also travelled long distances to collect firewood. It is hoped that eventually the local conservation efforts will enable villagers to obtain all their requirements of firewood and forest produce from the protected hills and plants. Much of their animal fodder requirements are already being met locally, and springs of fresh water are appearing where none have been seen for the past two decades.
63. Herring, R. 1988. Rethinking the commons and the tragedy thereof. Workshop Paper, Ecology and Development. Indian Council for Social Science Research, New Delhi, India.
REGIONAL The author discusses several dilemmas of CPR, including the structure of CPR regimes, the influence of colonial law and Hardin's "tragedy of the commons", especially in relation to South Asia. The dilemmas within the tragedy of the commons produce a confrontation of values which cannot be avoided: livelihoods for marginalized populations versus conservation of nature and local democracy versus higher order values of global and intergenerational preservation of a common natural heritage.
64. Ho, W.W.S. 1986. Indian forest policy and a tribal viewpoint: an exploratory survey of the level of participation in a social forestry scheme, implemented by the government in a forest area. Department of Forest Management, Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands.
INDIA In Part A, a general description is given of the district of Dangs, in the south of Gujarat State, including its geography and inhabitants, history and administration, land use and socio-economic and development aspects. In Part B, methodology and results are described for a specific survey made of the factors influencing participation in the Malki Land Reclamation Scheme, a social forestry programme implemented in the district since 1977. In Part C, the results are discussed in the context of the historical background in order to determine strategies and approaches which pursue the development of forests and forest dwellers in an integrated manner.
65. Hobley, M. 1987. Involving the poor in forest management: can it be done? The Nepal-Australia Project experience. ODI Social Forestry Network Paper 5c. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
NEPAL Community forestry should not be defined by scale or end product but by where the decision making power about the resource lies. Participation and control by local people in the establishment, sustenance, access to and distribution of benefits are prerequisites for a sound community forestry programme. The author discusses the implications of such an approach on the decision making process and whether action of the rural poor can be supported or encouraged in the bilateral Nepal-Australia Forestry Project. The situation in two villages is examined. Conclusions are that villagers always considered the forest to be community owned. Community forestry, however, is unlikely to be obtained without invoking deep social change.
66. Iyengar, S. 1989. Common property land resources in Gujarat: some findings about their size, status and use. Wastelands News 5(1):23-37.
INDIA It is only in recent years that common property land resources have attracted the attention of scholars and others. The development of infrastructure facilities, such as roads and transport networks, has opened up markets for some natural resources. While this is a healthy development, it has also resulted in far too rapid growth in the rate of exploitation of the resources. Since independence, the population, including that of rural areas, has grown at a very rapid rate. This has increased pressure on available land. The area under CPR land in villages has decreased and continues to do so because of privatization. Over-use and over-exploitation of land has also led to deterioration in its quality. As a result, the status and area of CPR land has changed considerably. This article is based on a study in 25 villages located in five different geo-physical regions in Gujarat state.
67. Japing, C.H. 1932. Inlandsche gemeenten en boschbeheer in de buitengewesten. [Local communities and forest management in the outer provinces.] Tectona 25:1583-1592. (In Dutch.)
INDONESIA A plea is made for dividing forest management between the forest service and the local communities (margas). The margas should control the forests destined for local interests (wood production, agricultural reserves) and should be responsible for the forests they themselves use. The forest service will save time and money which can be used for more intensive management of the forests of general interest.
68. Japing, C.H. 1929. De wenschelijkheid van het in beheer geven van bosschen aan inlandsche rechtsgemeenschappen. [The desirability of giving the management of forests to local communities.] Tectona 22:599-631. (In Dutch.)
INDONESIA The author discusses several legal categories of forest land and summarizes experiences with traditional forest management in south and west Sumatra. Normally, community members have the right to collect forest products and to open up agricultural plots on village forest lands. Sometimes specific forest areas are reserved and left undisturbed. Outsiders have to pay a fee for forest product collection. Forest areas that are hydrologically or economically unimportant could officially be managed by local communities under the supervision of the forestry department. Following the article is a discussion of foresters on the proposals, in which many objections are raised.
69. Jessup, T.C. and Peluso, N.L. 1986. Minor forest products as common property resources in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Pp. 505-531, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Research Council/BOSTID. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
INDONESIA The authors describe an investigation of the environmental effects of people's forest-related activities in Kalimantan and identify the contexts in which people engage in, or alter, those activities. In explicating the case study of three commercially important minor forest products (rattan, aloes, wood and birds' nests), the Oakerson model  is followed for the analysis of common property problems. Villagers' rights to clear forest land and harvest forest products have been restricted, since timber concessions have been granted to a few large companies. This policy, amongst others, has changed the traditional common property status of many forest resources and has increased stress on local economies and environments. It is concluded that local CPR users' organizations cannot by themselves manage forest resources in East Kalimantan, where so many external influences affect forest exploitation. Traditional village groups and cooperatives, however, can be incorporated into programmes of forest conservation and development.
70. Jodha, N.S. 1990. Rural common property resources: contributions and crisis. SPWD Foundation Day Lecture, 16 May. Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development, New Delhi, India.
INDIA The author reviews the present status of the management of CPRs such as water, grazing lands and forests. The review is based on extensive studies on the presence and importance of CPRs in the dry zones of seven states. Based on numerous micro-level village studies of the contribution of CPRs to the village economy, the extent of the dependence of various user groups on these CPRs and their management characteristics are indicated. The decline in CPR area, as well as the physical degradation and deterioration of the management arrangements, are discussed. This decline is caused by effects of public interventions, commercialization, technological change and demographic factors. Rich and poor people respond in different ways to the changing status of the CPRs. While rich people tend to withdraw from CPR use and increasingly rely on alternative land use options (including CPR privatization), the poor tend to continue to rely on CPRs for sustenance; they attempt to maximize the complementary relations between CPRs and private resources. Although there are various factors constraining the present and future management and proper utilization of CPRs, there are three important reasons to improve prospects for future CPRM:
Factors to consider in strengthening CPR management are positive CPR policies, increased productivity through higher investments and new technology, improved management regulations and formation of well-defined user groups.
71. Jodha, N.S. 1987a. The degradation of common property resources: a case of the degradation of common property resources in India. Pp. 196-207, in Blaikie, P. and Brookfield, H. (eds.). Land Degradation and Society. Methuen, London, UK.
INDIA The problem of land degradation is particularly severe in rural CPRs, which constitute a significant proportion of total land resources in the semi-arid regions. The author describes the situation in Rajasthan, where control over CPRs was exercised through a landlord who could impose charges on access and produce. A land reform conducted in the early 1950s removed this system of control, encouraging over-exploitation and depletion. There is no private cost of using CPRs anymore and, consequently, CPRs have declined. This resulted in soil erosion and redistribution of land resources, ultimately disadvantaging the poor.
72. Jodha, N.S. 1986. Common property resources and rural poor in dry regions of India. Economic and Political Weekly XXI(27):1169-1181.
INDIA CPRs play a significant role in the life of the rural poor. In this paper, part of a larger study on the role of CPRs in farming systems of the dry areas of India, the author attempts to quantify the extent to which the rural poor benefit from CPRs, based on data from over 80 villages in 21 districts. The study reveals the significant contribution of CPRs towards the employment and income generation of the rural poor; i.e. labour and small farm households. Despite the contributions of CPRs, their area and productivity are declining in all of the regions. Large scale privatization of CPRs has taken place during the last three decades, in an effort to help the poor. However, 49 percent to 86 percent of the privatized CPRs ended up in the hands of the non-poor. Furthermore, most of the land received by the poor households was also given up by them because they did not have complementary resources with which to develop and use it. This situation, it is concluded, calls for greater attention to CPRs as a part of the anti-poverty strategy.
73. Jodha, N.S. 1985. Market forces and erosion of common property resources. Pp. 263-227, in Agricultural Markets in the Semi-Arid Tropics. Proceedings of an International Workshop. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India.
INDIA CPRs constitute a significant component of the agricultural resource base in rural areas of developing countries. Broadly speaking, the CPRs are those that are utilized jointly or individually by the members of the community, with or without usage charges, without any exclusive individual property right on them. In the context of village India, CPRs include: village forests, community pastures, "wastelands", community threshing grounds, river/rivulet banks and beds, watershed drainages, ponds, tanks and groundwater; etc. The CPRs directly or indirectly play an important role in enhancing and stabilizing the income, employment and sustenance of village communities. Under the pressure of circumstances, however, CPRs have been declining and deteriorating rapidly during recent decades. Institutional changes, increased pressure on the land and the free play of market forces seem to be primary factors behind the decline of CPRs. This paper, after highlighting the contribution of CPRs to village income, presents evidence on their erosion. Factors contributing to this erosion are discussed with the help of village-level data from selected areas of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states in India. The role of market forces in the process is described.
74. Kaul, M. 1987. Common property resources: 1880-1986 in the Bisagama Cluster, Delhi. Lady Shri Ram College, University of New Delhi, New Delhi, India.
INDIA This paper describes the changes occurring in the rural villages surrounding the metropolitan centre of Delhi. While the process of modernization brought advantages for these villages, it also brought a tremendous upsurge in demographic expansion, thus upsetting the balance between resources in the region. It has led to the breakdown of traditional institutions like the village community. There has been an increasing diversion of common lands from community ownership to private ownership and a diversion of common lands from arable and pastoral use to non-arable and non-pastoral use. As a result, the pressure on the shrinking wastelands increased.
75. Kikuchi, Y. 1971. Preliminary notes on the social structure of the Pala'wan, Palawan Island, Philippines. Asian Studies 9:315-327.
PHILIPPINES Traditional hamlets in the Palawan Islands had a headman, who parcelled out pieces of commonly owned land to individual families and who directed labour reciprocity and swidden-fallow activities. Contact with lowlanders has led to the desire for consumer items. Cash is gained by selling forest products and labour. This has led to a re-emphasis on the household as the economic unit, with a loss of importance of the community and a decline in the headman's authority.
76. Kunstadter, P. 1988. Hill people of Northern Thailand. Pp. 93-110, in Denslow, J.S. and Padoch, C. (eds.). People of the tropical rain forest. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, USA.
THAILAND The author provides a description of tradition and adaptation of swidden-fallow cultivation management by ethnic Lua farmers. Swidden lands were traditionally considered as common village property and swiddens were reallocated as necessary by village religious leaders. Cutting, burning and planting swiddens was traditionally controlled by the chief priest of the village who was paid a nominal tribute for the right to cultivate. Several rules and regulations were set in order to manage the area properly, according to custom. The traditional system has broken down, however, due to several reasons:
The authority of traditional leaders has eroded, and traditional claims on land and usufruct rights are no longer recognized.
77. Kunstadter, P. 1980. Implications of socio-economic, demographic and cultural changes for regional development in Northern Thailand. Pp. 13-27, in Ives, J.D., Sabhasri, S. and Voraurai, P. (eds.), Conservation and development in Northern Thailand: proceedings of a workshop held in Thailand in 1978. United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.
THAILAND Land in the middle latitudes is being alienated from its long established customary use in regular rotation swidden-fallow systems. Traditionally, in Thailand, agricultural land was considered to be owned by the village community and allocated temporarily by village religious leaders for use by individual households. In the last two or three decades, land laws appropriate for lowland irrigated rice farming were proclaimed in disregard of traditional land claims. This has left the villagers without legal title to their land which, now officially belongs to the Royal Forest Department. The market economy and expanding populations have made land a saleable commodity, in spite of the absence of legal title, and individual highlanders have sold portions of what was once considered common property. Stabilization of land holdings at the village level is essential in any attempt at maintaining or strengthening highlander village structures.
78. Kunstadter, P. 1974. Usage et tenure des terres chez les Lua. [Land utilization and tenure of the Lua.] Etudes Rurales 53-54-55-56:449-466. (In French.)
THAILAND The Lua of NW Thailand live in a hilly area and practise a bush fallow form of swidden-fallow cultivation for rice production. In this system, the land is cultivated for one year and kept in fallow for nine years. Lua land use is based on the village which is organized along patrilineal lines. The bush fallow areas are commonly owned, whereas some irrigated fields on terraces are individually owned and can be sold or rented. The group system of resource management includes forests for hunting and gathering. Such traditional systems are changing. Due to lack of social and cultural flexibility, the Lua are losing ground to more flexible Karen people, who have similar agricultural practices.
79. van de Laar, A. 1990. A framework for the analysis of common pool natural resources. ISS Working Paper Series No.77. Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, Netherlands.
GENERAL The author tackles the issue of property rights regimes in the context of common pool situations. He reviews the literature on CPR management and rights, examining the technical and physical attributes, decision making arrangements, patterns of interaction and outcomes. His proposed new analytical framework is an attempt to expand on earlier models (particularly the Oakerson model ) and to make it relevant to real life situations and useful to professionals from a variety of disciplines.
80. Lekanne dit Deprez B.E.J.C. 1990. Pp. 7-15 in Bijdragen Saheldag. November 1989. Sahel Coordinatie Programme, Bureau of Foreign Affairs, Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands. (In Dutch.)
GENERAL This paper takes a general look at. questions of natural resources management in which local people have responsibility for forest maintenance. (Specific reference is made to the situation in the African Sahel but the discussion has broader implications.) The collective aspects of management are discussed theoretically, and a framework for the analysis of collective action is presented. The paper concludes with some implications for forest development project interventions, stressing the importance of institutional aspects.
81. Leuschner, W.A. and Shakya, K.M. 1988. Local participation through development planning: a case study in Nepal. Journal of World Forest Resource Management 3(l):1-13.
NEPAL The authors state that the cooperation of local residents and district officers is important for success of CFR projects and is facilitated by involving these groups in local development planning. Resource assessment, project capacity and local participation form the basis for such planning, and three variations are given. Although the systems successfully involved villagers in planning, generated enthusiasm and communicated project goals, the authors say that they are costly, can cause an expectation trap and may not always lead to the implementation of plans.
82. Mahat, T.B.S. 1987. Forestry-farming linkages in the mountains. ICIMOD Occasional Paper 7. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
REGIONAL This pilot study aims to broaden the understanding of forest farming interrelationships and to discuss forestry contributions to hill farm economics. The author attempts to analyse the role forestry can play in the socio-economic development of rural people and, thus, to establish the place of forestry in rural development. The economy of the Hindu Kush-Himalayan area (the region on which ICIMOD is mainly focused) is dominated by a rural sector based exclusively on farming. Crop production, livestock husbandry and forestry constitute the three principal, close and inseparable components of much of the farming systems. People-oriented forestry development activities have a high potential for helping hill farm economies. The report gives a list of policy implications derived, including the need for integrated management, reorientation of forestry policies to people's need-oriented strategies and local people's participation.
83. Mahat, T.B.S., Griffin, D.M. and Shepherd, K.R. 1987. Human impact on some forests of the middle hills of Nepal. Part 4. A detailed study in Southeast Sindhu Palchok and northeast Kabhre palanchok. Mountain Research and Development 7(2):111-134.
NEPAL This is the fourth in a five-part series in which the authors set in historical context the influence of local people on the middle hill forests. A detailed study of two districts is described. Interviews were held with 56 people, mainly elderly, to determine local forest history for the village panchayats (communities) on the eastern slopes of the Sun Kosi River. There was no evidence of significant changes in areas of agricultural or forest land for at least a century, despite large population increases. Forests have declined in quality, however, and most forest products are now in short supply. Rapid decline occurred during 1951-53, coinciding with changes in the control of forests. A local system of forest use seems to have regulated forest land use fairly well, while this use originated largely from within the area. But, the increased urbanization of nearby Kathmandu Valley created pressures on forests which local functionaries were unable to control, and the system collapsed in the decade after 1951. Extensive data were obtained on the quantitative and qualitative use of many forest and tree products. The development of community forestry since 1973 is traced. By that year, there were local movements to re-establish control over the forest remnants. Such initiative is considered essential for resource improvement.
84. Mansberger, J.R. 1991. Keeping the covenant: preservation of sacred forests in Nepal. PhD dissertation. Geography Department, University of Hawaii, Manoa, USA.
NEPAL This work deals with the place of, tenure connected with and rights to sacred forests and groves in the context of religion and society. The author addresses management issues, as well as ownership and condition of the resource.
He also gives recommendations concerning their current and future preservation. The collective management situation regarding sacred forests is ambiguous and tenuous but there is scope and hope for improvement based on local concern for this form of common resource. Their preservation is urgent. As one Nepalese official put it, sacred groves are currently like a "stray dog".
85. McCay, B.J. and Acheson, J.M. (eds.). 1987. The question of the commons: the culture and ecology of communal resources. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, USA.
GENERAL This is a collection of 18 original essays evaluating the use and misuse of CPRs. The starting point of all essays is the assertion from G. Hardin's thesis about "the tragedy of the commons" that common property is doomed to over-exploitation in any society. This book represents a cross-cultural test of Hardin's thesis and argues that while tragedies of the commons do occur under some circumstances, local institutions have proven resilient and responsive to the problems of common resources use. The case studies depict and analyse cultural and situational variation in human relationships to natural resources and contribute to an anthropology and human ecology of the commons. Fisheries is one of the main subjects examined in the case studies. The editors' lead article (on the human ecology of the commons), generally examines the commons and the tragedy thereof.
86. Messerschmidt, D.A. 1987. Conservation and society in Nepal: traditional forest management and innovative development. Pp. 373-397, in Little, P.D., Horowitz, M.M. and Nyerges, A.E. (eds.). Lands atrisk in the Third World: local level perspectives. Monographs in Development Anthropology, Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
NEPAL This article provides an analyses of forest degradation in Nepal, where the rate of deforestation is now proceeding at 25 percent per decade. The cause of degradation is attributed to a combination of flawed forest policies, population pressure and a fragile environment. Drawing on work as social scientist with a resource management project, the author describes the most hopeful management options based on the identification and incorporation of local indigenous and traditional management techniques. He describes a "village dialogue" (gaun sallah) approach to project planning that solicits the knowledge of local leaders and farmers, local organizations and traditional rules regulating forest use. Considerable detail is provided on local management techniques and on the ethnographic method by which they can be discovered and incorporated.
87. Messerschmidt, D.A. 1986. People and resources in Nepal: customary resource management systems of the upper Kali Gandaki. Pp. 455-480, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, USA.
NEPAL The author presents data and an analysis of traditional resource management systems located in two districts along the upper Kali Gandaki River watershed in north central Nepal. Examples of both local forest and irrigation management systems are given. After this, the common property issues are analysed according to the Oakerson framework , in which the tendency to ignore or de-emphasize the cultural context of local understanding and decision making is regarded as a weakness. Physical and technical attributes, the decision making arrangements, the patterns of interaction and the outcomes of the Nepali CPRM systems are discussed. It is concluded that cultural diversity and diversity of form, function, meaning and use provide a key to understanding how and why common property management systems survive and thrive in the world.
88. Messerschmidt, D.A. 1984. Using human resources in natural resource management: innovations in Himalayan development. ICIMOD Watershed Management Systems Working Paper 111. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
NEPAL This paper deals with the experiences gained and lessons learned regarding people's participation in the development and management of natural resources in the Nepal Himalaya. The author has two objectives:
The author describes established systems of group control and use rights for natural resources and common properties in Nepal, for which several examples of CFR management are mentioned.
89. Metzner, J. 1983. Innovations in agriculture incorporating traditional production methods: the case of Amarasi (Timor). Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies XIX(3):94-105.
INDONESIA Swidden is a remarkably adaptable type of cultivation as reflected in a multitude of different clearance, cropping and rotation systems. A particularly illuminating case of a successful autochthonous approach to stabilizing an agro-ecosystem is described from Amarasi, on the island of Timor. The account concerns several regulations based on the traditional local power situation (adat), including the obligation of every farmer to plant leguminous plants on the swidden-fallow plots before abandoning them and to solve related conflicts through a strictly observed land use zoning system.
90. Moench, M. 1988. "Turf" and forest management in a Garwhal hill village. Pp. 127-136, in Fortmann, L. and Bruce, J.W. (eds.). Whose trees?: proprietary dimensions of forestry. Westview Press, Boulder, USA.
INDIA This article is based on field research in Tehri Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh and describes a system of locally recognized inter- and intra-village customary rights to land and trees (turf). The customary rights system supersedes national statutory rights and results in a reasonable level of forest management. Turf controls forest use and access. The concept of turf can be useful in designing forestry projects. In many areas unofficial village level control over forest resources and traditional forest management systems on the village level are common. They provide basic opportunities for, and place fundamental constraints on, group forestry programmes and other rural development activities.
91. Moench, M. 1986. Cooperative resource management in an Indian mountain village. Working Paper. Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, USA.
INDIA The author emphasizes cooperative management of interrelated food, fodder and fuelwood resources through a case study in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh. The study highlights a form of CPRM and represents an elaboration of turf in a Garhwal village. The author finds that cooperative resource management systems occur in situations where interdependence, need and environmental hospitality are high. The role of interdependence requires further testing, as does the relationship between interdependence, environmental hospitality and the formality of institutions. If the concepts prove valuable, they could act as useful tools in both the understanding and design of cooperative resource management.
92. Moench, M. and Bandyopadhyay, J. 1986. People-forest interaction: a neglected parameter in Himalayan forest management. Mountain Research and Development 6(l):3-16.
INDIA The village of Munglori, in the mountains of Uttar Pradesh, is used for a case study of rural forest management. The authors point out that the subsistence needs of the villagers have invariably been omitted from forest management planning. The research was directed at the biomass flow of the village, concentrating on the fuel, fodder and the yearly migration cycles. Relationships between village biomass consumption and forest productivity are demonstrated. Management of common grasslands around Munglori by 18 villages with the traditional management techniques for using the commons clearly indicates that civil forests, grasslands or reserved forests can be successfully managed with the participation of the people, particularly women.
93. Molnar, A. 1981. The dynamics of traditional systems of forest management in Nepal: implications for the Community Forestry Development and Training Project. Consultant report to the World Bank, World Bank, Washington DC, USA.
NEPAL The Community Forestry Development Project (CFDP) aims at increasing supplies of fuelwood, fodder, grass and timber by allocating greater responsibility for forest management and protection to local communities. This report investigates the dynamics of the traditional systems of forest management in a number of communities in the hills of Nepal. The author examines changes in strategy needed to insure better project implementation. She looks at existing constraints and the active involvement of local farmers in forest plantation, rehabilitation and preservation. There is no single formula for local participation; rather, attention to the individual adaptation of a community management system to local conditions and needs is the main criterion for success. Because traditional systems do not conform to a single pattern, they do not seem to provide a model, per se, for participation. It is important that they be encouraged where they do exist in the course of project implementation and that the project activities undertaken do not undercut them administratively or organizationally.
94. Morse, R. and Tingsabadh, C. 1987. Peoples' institutions for forest and fuelwood development: a report on participatory fuelwood evaluations in India and Thailand. Jointly produced by the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute and Environment and Policy Institute, the Appropriate Technology Development Association, the Chulalongkorn University Social Research Institute and the USAID/S and T/Office of Energy. U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington DC, USA.
INDIA and THAILAND This study suggests that project evaluations, like project designs, should take into account the perceptions of the affected population. It reports the results of evaluations of two fuelwood projects, one in a hill area of northern India and one in a rainfed rice-growing area of Thailand. The evaluations were conducted by farm families and other local residents and their conclusions differed - sometimes greatly - from those of external evaluation teams. Methodologies used, detailed findings and policy and action recommendations are discussed.
The authors also highlight some conclusions drawn from both evaluations:
The report includes recommendations for strengthening the capacity of local institutions to participate in project planning, implementation and evaluation.
95. Noronha, R. 1980. Village woodlots: are they a solution? Paper prepared for the panel on Introduction and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, USA.
REGIONAL This paper examines how to get village residents to cooperate in increasing their fuelwood resources. It is not merely a question of the diffusion of technology but an examination of the ways in which people cooperate and of the occasions on which this cooperation is forthcoming. Woodlot programmes are examined in China, Korea and India (Gujarat) in Asia, as well as in Tanzania and Niger in Africa. The paper deals with several relevant economic, social and political aspects. The author concludes that there is a fundamental need to understand village social, cultural, economic and political structures, needs, priorities and perceptions. It is also necessary to develop an organization which is linked to people at all levels and involves their participation.
96. Oakerson, R.J. 1986. A model for the analysis of common property problems. Pp. 13-29, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL The author presents a model to analyse common property problems, whatever the resource or facility. The model is specific enough to offer guidance in the field, yet general enough to permit application to widely variable conditions. It examines four facets:
The four components are introduced, the relationships among the components examined, and finally, ways for applying the model iteratively to understand the impact of institutional change and adaptation are suggested. (For examples of the application of this model to CFRM systems, see annotations 6, 16, 69, 87, 103, 109.)
97. Olofson, H. (ed.). 1981. Adaptive strategies and change in Philippines swidden based societies. Forest Research Institute College, Laguna, Philippines.
PHILIPPINES This book is a compilation of several articles on the multiple facets of swidden-fallow cultivation in the Philippines. The author aims at a better understanding of the swidden (shifting) cultivator societies. Traditional and changing systems are described. The articles describe the more technical aspects of the management systems used by swidden societies but also contain information on the organizational aspects of the management systems. There is also an annotated bibliography of 174 titles from the literature on swidden-fallow cultivation in the Philippines and worldwide.
98. Peluso, N.L. 1986. Report on social forestry research in West and Central Java. State Forestry Corporation and The Ford Foundation, Jakarta, Indonesia.
INDONESIA This is a summary of the findings of social forestry research at 12 project locations in Java and Sulawesi. The interactions between the rural population and different kinds of state forest lands (natural and plantation production forest, protection forest, recreational forest and nature reserves) were studied. A distinction is made between formal and informal forest uses. Formal uses involve some kind of contractual arrangements between the forest service and the users; informal uses involve no contract and are not the formal responsibility of the forest service to administer. They often involve products which are either unprofitable or too difficult to manage by the forest service but which are of great value to local people. Sometimes local people actively manage the exploitation of these informal forest products, often on the basis of residual customary territorial rights. These rights vary from tree tenure systems to systems in which lands are divided into locally recognized territories, where members of particular families/communities may collect grass, graze cattle, etc. Sometimes privatization of such informal collection rights may occur.
99. Persoon, G. 1989. The Kubu and the outside world (south Sumatra, Indonesia): the modification of hunting and gathering. Anthropos 84:507-519.
INDONESIA In the past, the external relations of hunters and gatherers living in the forest areas received little attention. Stress was put on the isolated and self-supporting nature of these small-scale societies. Recently the focus has changed. Retrospectively, many hunter and gatherer societies are found to have long-standing relations with sedentary farmers or pastoral peoples. In this paper, the changing relations between the Kubu, a people living on hunting, gathering and some cultivation, and the sedentary Malay peasants in South Sumatra are described. The Kubu nowadays can hardly survive independently from the farming population. The traditional lifestyle no longer exists. Change has been influenced by:
100. Rathakette, R., Somnasang, P., Ratanapanya, S. and Homchoen, S. 1985. Taboos and traditions: their influence on the conservation and exploitation of trees in social forestry projects in north eastern Thailand. Pp. 363-370, in Rao, Y.R., Vergara, N.T. and Lovelace, G.W. (eds.). Community forestry: socio-economic aspects. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (FAO/RAPA), Bangkok, Thailand.
THAILAND The authors comment on the results of a preliminary 1984 survey of local concepts and practices of conservation and preference, taboos and avoidances regarding the use of trees and forests in some villages of NE Thailand. The basic assumption of the survey is that for social forestry projects to be environmentally and socially sound, there must be active involvement of local villagers and an understanding of their values, beliefs and practices. Although some of these traditions and taboos are now being modified or lost in the face of modernization, the content and implementation of social forestry development projects could be greatly enhanced by drawing upon local religious beliefs and values. Two examples of traditional Thai beliefs that might be used to reinforce forestry-based rural development programmes are taboos against the use of particular tree species for certain activities and belief in village sacred groves. Apart from their religious and aesthetic value to local inhabitants, sacred groves also serve as reservoirs of biological diversity. The success of development programmes can also be improved with involvement of traditional leaders. In NEThailand, the influence of monks, village headmen and teachers is important to the outcome of specific projects. Informal leaders, especially elders, are equally important and exert much influence over families, social groups and, often, over the whole village.
101. Romm, J. 1981. The uncultivated half of India. The Indian Forester 107(I):1-23, (II):69-85.
INDIA Part I - If the way land is classified in India reflects how it is viewed for policy, then the general policy purposes for uncultivated land is not to promote productive land use but to protect property jurisdictions. Land policy pegged to property lines may neither address land as an economic resource nor productively shape the motives of those who use the land for economic ends. Insecurity about ownership and uncertainty about who benefits from fruits of longer term investments, encourages short-term exploitation of land resources. Villagers will not plant or protect forests if they are not sure that forest produce will be theirs.
Part II - There are large discrepancies between the conditions of management assumed in current administrative structure and those actually prevailing on common lands. Forest departments act as custodians of more than 20 percent of the land, on the assumption that these lands are forested, unoccupied and with sufficient land pressure to endanger regulatory controls. But more than half the area is denuded, over-grazed and under private, rather than public control. There is need to survey tenurial arrangements.
102. Royen, J.W. van. 1927. De marga van Palembang: enzn land en water rechten. [The mar a of Palembang and its land and water rights.] PhD Dissertation. State University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands. (In Dutch.)
INDONESIA This study describes the marga system, a local juridical entity created by the Dutch colonial power in south Sumatra, Indonesia. It has indigenous origins. The marga consisted of several villages and was headed by a marga council, including a headman, village leaders and elected members. In addition to matters of family rights, it had jurisdiction over land use, including regulations on land use zoning, control over allotment for swidden-fallow cultivation and control over forest exploitation. With increased cultivation of commercial tree crops, control of forest exploitation rights declined. Marga control was further limited with the advent of laws under which local land rights were gradually limited to actually cultivated lands.
103. Range, C.F. 1986. Common property and collective action in economic development. Pp. 31-60, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resources Management. National Research Council/BOSTID. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
GENERAL Common property provides a complex system of norms and conventions to regulate individual rights to use a variety of natural resources, including forests, range and water. This paper describes a number of reasons why common property may be as viable as private property on grounds of both efficiency and equity. Problems of common property result from tensions in the structure of joint use rights adopted by a particular village or group. These tensions may arise from a variety of complex causes, like population pressure and political forces. The thesis of this article is that too often these causes have been confused and the problem ascribed simply to the "tragedy of the commons", in which the misuse of resources is attributed to the institution of common property itself. The problems with this view are investigated. In many cases, common property institutions may play a key role in the effective management of scarce natural resources, complemented and combined with private rights.
104. Runge, C.F. 1981. Common property externalities: isolation, assurance, and resource depletion in a traditional grazing context. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 63:595-606.
GENERAL Institutional alternatives to common property externalities are wider than argued by private exclusive property rights advocates. The "tragedy of the commons" is not a prisoners' dilemma, characterized by the strict dominance of individual strategies. The non-separable common property externality is an "assurance problem". The assurance problem provides striking perspectives in analytical and policy terms. It redefines the problem of the commons as one of decision making under uncertainty. Institutional rules innovated by the group to reduce uncertainty and coordinate expectations can solve the problem of over-exploitation. Rules come in many forms, of which private property is only one.
105. Sanwal, M. 1986. The social forestry design framework: the hill areas of Uttar Pradesh. ODI Social Forestry Network Paper 2d. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
INDIA This paper critically discusses the policies and objectives usually practised in development plans. It is argued that the goal to be achieved should not be the "protection of watersheds" as an end in itself but, rather, as a means to achieve food, fuel and fodder for the villagers. The complete causes of the crisis in the lives of the hill people in Uttar Pradesh are analysed. Secondly, institutional arrangements for an alternative strategy - social forestry - are described. Social forestry is not a technology but a process that requires the acceptance and participation of the entire community in decision making and the sharing of benefits. Communities can be offered effective ownership in exchange for management, where the government will provide the resources. Traditionally, communities have done this very effectively. Finally, general lessons for development policy are drawn. One is that in marginal areas where CPRs are available, the impact of exogenous influences needs to be studied for the legislative impediments they create to the exercise of traditional rights.
106. de Saussay, C. 1987. Land tenure systems and forest policy. FAO Legislative Study 41. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. (In English and French.)
GENERAL This report examines the broad range of land ownership types and the impact that ownership patterns have on forest and forest management. A basic distinction is between public and private land ownership. Within this broad classification, many variants can be found; customary ownership and group forests are two examples. In many cases, the land tenure regime not only provides the framework within which forest policy will operate but may occasionally create obstacles to its proper implementation. This report describes forest policies on private and public land, including community land. Traditional tenure has survived in India, Papua New Guinea and elsewhere. In Papua New Guinea, customary land tenure has become a political principle.
107. Saxena, N.C. 1987. Commons, trees, and the poor in the Uttar Pradesh hills. ODI Social Forestry Network Paper 5f. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
INDIA Deforestation, apart from creating immediate shortages of fuelwood and fodder, has directly affected the quality of people's lives. The government of Uttar Pradesh State has responded to the increasing deforestation by creating several new divisions to afforest the common lands. This paper addresses the following questions: is the tide of deforestation reversed? and, is the priority given to civil lands as opposed to panchayat, private or reserved lands, justified by the experience gained in the last 15 years? It is suggested that the panchayats important because small farm holders have been found to meet a substantial portion of their fuelwood and fodder needs from them and have to spend a substantial amount of time collecting fuelwood from them. The size and state of the CPRs in and around the village, the extent of fuelwood and fodder needs being met from CPRs and the existence of management systems for upgrading CPRs are important in deciding the agroforestry system.
111. Shah, T. and Ballabh, V. 1987. Ownership/use rights and community involvement in forestry wastelands development - experiences from Gujarat. Workshop paper on common property resources. Sariska Palace, Rajasthan, India.
INDIA The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate alternative institutional arrangements to redeem the health of India's wastelands and use them to augment the resource base of the poor. Historically, poor people were heavily dependent on these (common) resources. Recent experiences in privatizing these resources and entrusting ownership/usufruct rights to individual poor families does not appear to have produced encouraging results either in restoring productivity of this land or in expanding the resource base of poor families. The paper presents the experiences of six NGOs in and around Gujarat which have experimented with different mechanisms to organize small communities of poor rural families on wastelands. Important considerations in evolving an organization for developing the "wastelands" are:
112. Shah, P. and Wier, A. 1987. Approaches to social forestry in western India: some aspects of NGO experience. ODI Social Forestry Network Paper 5b. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
INDIA The authors outline some approaches to social forestry in India by briefly reviewing examples of projects supported by the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) and conclude with the identification of major themes, based on the experience of the last three years. The main thrust of the AKF's social forestry strategy in India is to work with local NGOs to:
Examples (from Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat) illustrate various approaches to the crucial issues facing the rural poor through social forestry.
113. Shiva, V.1986. Coming tragedy of the commons. Economic and Political Weekly 21(15):613-614.
INDIA The author argues that the current Wasteland Development Programme (like the Tree Patta scheme) is simply a means to privatize common land, thus accentuating rural poverty and increasing ecological instability. Only a few marginal and landless farmers will gain at the cost of the majority who derive a wealth of benefits from these lands.
114. Singh, C. 1986. Common property and common poverty. India's forests, forest dwellers and the law. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
INDIA In this publication, the author considers the exact legal position concerning the current rights of forest dwellers in India and ascertains what can be done for them in future legislation. The subject is discussed in the following sections: property and poverty, forest and people, rights in common, civil rights, economic rights, eminent domain, occupancy rights, public purpose, compensation, the basis for equality, the way to equality and national interest. Most rural Indians depend on CPRs for their energy and housing needs; the dependency being the greatest in tribal areas. One conclusion is that the Indian Forest Lands Acts should be repealed and that new acts should be created, in order to reach a point of equal distribution and use of natural resources.
115. Siy, R.Y. 1982. Community resource management: lessons from the Zanjera. University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City, Philippines.
PHILIPPINES This book is an intensive study and multidisciplinary analysis of a rural organization, the zany, a type of water users' association found primarily in the Northern Philippines. It is an organization that has demonstrated remarkable and sustained success in mobilizing local, low opportunity cost human and material resources for the construction, operation and maintenance of irrigation systems. The study demonstrates that there is much logic and pragmatism in the managerial and technical choices made by rural people and that the major factors behind the effectiveness, dynamism and adaptability of indigenous groups are organizational and technical principles, which are left out of many development plans and projects.
116. Spencer, J.E. 1966. Shifting cultivation in Southeastern Asia. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, USA.
REGIONAL Spencer examines swidden-fallow cultivation practices throughout SE Asia. The distribution, overall structure and importance of this production system are extensively described. The author reviews the concepts of control and administration of land among those culture groups employing swidden-fallow cultivation and jungle appropriation in the operation of their economies. The author also deals with the institutional changes that take place in the control and administration of land when the formal political state replaces simpler systems of territorial organization. Although the author only tentatively treats the basic conceptual and operating principles, he gives insight into the variety and complexity of swidden cultivator land control in further detail.
117. Speth, K. 1990. Forest utilization and management practices of a Nepalese hill community. Department of Forestry, Agricultural University Wageningen, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
NEPAL The author presents the results of a qualitative case study about the local forest utilization and management practices in Naldung village, Nepal. Both the management and utilization of trees growing on private agricultural lands and of communal forest lands are discussed. Three small forest areas of 3-6 ha are managed at ward level. These management systems are arranged at the level of one or two wards, rather than at village (panchayat) level; they are not legally sanctioned. The wards commonly employ a local forest watcher to control the exploitation of the forests. This employment partly has a symbolic function: it induces a proprietary interest in the forest area which is reflected in the self-disciplined utilization of the forest resources, even by poor people from adjacent wards who are informally allowed to collect products for home consumption, although they do not contribute to the system. A fourth forest area of 30 ha was historically under royal control and subsequently nationalized; more recently it was declared a Panchayat Protected Forest. Because of its size and historic background, this area was utilized by a variety of user groups from different wards, and it had become degraded due to its open access nature. In addition to these forests, smaller patches of religious forest stands are present. Various factors influence dynamic changes of the forest management systems, such as changed land use practices, religious change and changed land tenure relations. The changes in local perception about the nature of the management responsibilities for the large forest area were found to be related to the results of a cadastral survey, rather than to changes in forest legislation.
118. Srinivasan, V. 1985. Mahila Navajagran Samiti. [Women's Reawakening Association], India. Vol.11, pp. 39-49, in Muntemba, S. (ed.). Rural development and women: lessons from the field. International Labour Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.
INDIA The Mahila Navajagran Samiti (MNS) is a confederation of many community-based women's groups. It began as a small traditional top-down welfare-oriented organization. The women's groups (mandals) were formed spontaneously by women living in the Himalayan foothills of Dehradun District, Uttar Pradesh, to bring pressure on forestry policies of the state government, since fuelwood and forage collection are the most arduous and time-consuming tasks performed by the village women in this area and extensive illegal felling was taking place. Gradually, the women's groups developed into strong grassroots-level village organizations. A husband and wife team evolved programmes which concerned, among others, the encouragement and organization of mahila mandals to plant and manage fuelwood and forage on community lands and supported them in devising systems of participative management. It is concluded that any programmes or projects aimed at helping rural women must start by addressing their basic problems and develop mechanisms for involving the women themselves. External institutions must work with local groups, strengthening them by providing problem solving knowledge and technology.
119. Subedi, B.P., Das, C.L. and Messerschmidt, D.A. 1991. Tree and land tenure in the eastern Nepal Terai: a study by rapid appraisal. FAO/SIDA Forests, Trees and People Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
NEPAL The authors used rapid appraisal (RA) methods to study tree and land tenure in two rural communities of the eastern terai (lowlands) of Nepal. The research was designed to assist the Development of Income and Employment through Community Forestry Project, funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) and FAO. The authors introduce the topic of tenure in trees, forests and landed resources on private holdings, commons and government reserves (following the research strategy in Bruce, J.W.1989. Rapid appraisal of tree and land tenure. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.) Many of the findings are based on local indigenous knowledge, and there are several data-rich appendices on trees and forests and their uses by local people. They also critique Bruce's (and others') RA methodologies and give recommendations for future policy and project design in the terai region.
The authors discuss such conceptual and practical issues as "community" and "communal" management, the importance of engaging resource users and interest groups directly in development and problems of scarcity and equity, and they make policy recommendations. They point out needed changes in laws about tenure on private holdings and commons, and suggest strategies for scientific co-management of the reserve forest, including alternative forest production systems to provide more direct benefit to treeless and landless people.
120. Thomson, J.T., Feeny, D.H. and Oakerson, R.J.1986. Institutional dynamics: the evolution and dissolution of common property resource management. Pp. 391-424, in Proceedings of the conference on Common Property Resource Management. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
NIGER (Africa) and THAILAND Institutional arrangements for the management of common pool resources are created and evolve as responses to certain combinations of circumstances. A full understanding of the evolution and survival of such arrangements requires analysis of case studies. The dynamic sequences of change in the management of forest resources in Niger and Thailand are discussed. In both countries, exogenous changes in population and market opportunities combine to make the common pool more valuable. The response to growing scarcity is the search for new arrangements to manage the resource more effectively. In each case, the behaviour of the state affects the choice of new arrangements. Given the existing constitutional structures in each case, basic changes in institutional arrangements relevant to resource management require the central government to take action. The local arena is also important in shaping the interpretation, enforcement and operational meaning of new and existing systems.
121. Tucker, R.P. 1984. The historical context of social forestry in the Kumaon Himalayas. Journal of Developing Areas 18(3):341-355.
INDIA This is an account of the development of the social forestry programme of the Kumaon districts of Uttar Pradesh. The forest history of the region is traced from the beginning of the 19th century through pre-colonial and British colonial times to post-independence times. The account covers the evolution of the formal village panchayat (council) system of forest management from the 1920s. The 1922 policy states that the areas, usually called civil forests, should be run wherever possible by village panchayats, "communal rules, if possible, being eventually introduced". After 1929, the provincial government set up procedures for organizing village panchayats. The uneasy relationship between village panchayats and the forest department, both before and after Indian national independence are described, including the highly bureaucratic government control and influence of the chipko village protest movement from the 1970s.
122. Vayda, A.P. 1983. Progressive contextualization: methods for research in human ecology. Human Ecology 11(3):265-281.
INDONESIA and GENERAL This study is based on research directed in East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. The author and colleagues studied transmigration, forest farming and forest conversion, in order to advise the Indonesian government on transmigration and forest policies. The team chose sites of swidden-fallow cultivation, in order to document effects on distribution, structure and composition of the primary forest ecosystem.
123. Verma, D.P.S. 1988. Some dimensions of benefits from community forestry: a case study regarding the flow of benefits from the Dhanori village woodlot. Indian Forester 114(3):109-127.
INDIA A 4-ha plantation was established in 1974 on community grazing land in the village of Dhanori, Gujarat State as part of the State Village Forest Scheme. During the first four years, grass could be cut for outside sale. The trees were felled in 1983-84 and the distribution of benefits determined by the village panchayat (council). The internal rate of return from timber, fuelwood and grass was 35 percent. Villagers benefit from the fuelwood and small timber for house construction and repair and from the employment generated. The success of the project led the village to organize itself into a Tree Growers Society and to undertake further planting in 1984-86. The demonstrative effect of the woodlot led to 200 ha of other plantations being established in the area. The poor benefit considerably from the project, but if they had had a greater say in the panchayat deliberations, the benefits could have been even greater. (See also: Verma, D.P.S. 1987. The flow of benefits from the Dhanori village woodlot scheme. International Tree Crops Journal 4(2-3):89-108.)
124. Wallace, M.B. 1983. Managing resources that are common property: from Kathmandu to Capitol Hill. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2(2):220-237.
NEPAL The author gives an example of the theory that CPR utilization and resource degradation are related. He discusses the economic aspects of deforestation in Nepal. The abuse of forests is related to the fact that:
The policy responses to alleviate the problem of deforestation are discussed in terms of both demand-site policies (regulating forest utilization through taxes or quotas, subsidizing alternative fuels or improved stoves) and supply-side policies, including improved government, community or private management control. The problems in relation to CFRM in Nepal are compared with problems with respect to public fisheries and grazing lands in the USA.
125. Wechakit, D. 1990. Buddhist monks and social forestry in Thailand. ODI Social Forestry Network Paper 1Oe:1-10. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
THAILAND Traditionally, Buddhist monks in Thailand have maintained trees around their temples and have reforested bare lands and degraded forest areas within the boundaries of their temples' territory. Local villagers assisted monks in the establishment and protection of these forests. In cases where forest temples are located in national forest reserves, the commercial logging firms are careful to operate outside of the temple territories, although the temple forests are not legally recognized. Efforts should be undertaken to integrate the practical field experience and motivation of monks with respect to forest management in the Thai social forestry programme.
126. Weinstock, J.A. 1984. Tenure and forest lands in the Pacific. EAPI Working Paper. Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA.
SOUTH PACIFIC In this paper, general principles of tenure, both traditional and governmental, are discussed with a focus on forest lands and upland regions. Governmental laws and statutes are reviewed and discussed regarding their impact on forest land policy. Ultimately, the study shows the implications that formal and informal tenure have for the development of forest lands, both in individual countries and in the South Pacific region as a whole. Three traditional socio-political types of systems are distinguished: "big man", hereditary chiefdoms and hierarchical chiefdoms, on the basis of which three case studies are selected, one each from Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji and Tonga. With regard to PNG, of 17 ethnic groups in the highlands, slightly over half have tenure systems based on communal clan ownership. Compared to most other countries, PNG has had a history of relative benign government intervention with regard to traditional tenure systems. Traditional tenure still holds a prominent position in the use and management of forest lands due to the continuing strength of individual clans.
127. Weinstock, J.A. and Vergara, N.T. 1987. Land or plants: agricultural tenure in agroforestry systems. Economic Botany 41(2):312-322.
INDONESIA and PAPUA NEW GUINEA In order to understand traditional agricultural systems, especially where agroforestry is practised or its introduction has been proposed, it is necessary to distinguish between rights to land and rights to plants. In this article, rights to land versus rights to plants are viewed in the agricultural systems in Borneo, Indonesia and in Papua New Guinea. Conflicts between local tradition and government policy are discussed. Although villagers used the forest as a common resource, the traditional patterns of ownership and management at the local level have changed. The Luangans of Borneo have developed an ecologically stable and economically viable agroforestry technology because their concept of absolute private ownership of plants meshes well with shared user rights over the land. In Papua New Guinea, clan members who recognize absolute private ownership of plants want to perpetuate communal ownership of their land resources. It is concluded that agroforestry and reforestation as strategies to enhance productivity and sustainability may not readily be applied here.
128. Wiersum, K.F. (ed.). 1989. Indigenous forest utilization and management systems. Lecture notes on Forestry and Rural Development 2. Department of Forestry, Agricultural University Wageningen, The Netherlands.
GENERAL In tropical regions, local people have developed many traditional methods for utilizing their forest and tree resources. In many cases, the forest/tree resources were not only exploited for local use but measures were also taken to manage them. In this report, first, the theme is introduced by the editor and is followed by two approaches to analysing indigenous forest management systems: household level studies and village level studies. Second, the report presents a set of reprints of case studies on indigenous management practices in Cote d'Ivoire, Indonesia, Java and Somalia.
129. Wormald, T.J. and Messerschmidt, D.A. 1986. Management and monitoring of community forestry activities in Nepal. CFDP Field Document 12. Community Forestry Development Project, Kathmandu, Nepal.
NEPAL This report provides an extensive description of the Community Forestry Development Project (CFDP) and preliminary results. It outlines the project's official arrangements, the role of forest committees, management of community forests, training of community forestry field officers and staff and some technical problems encountered. The authors give recommendations for the effective improvement of forestry management systems and monitoring.
130. Yauieb, A.M.D. 1979. Land tenure and forestry in Papua New Guinea: problems and solutions.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA Traditional land holding groups have rights in the forests. Tribal groups protect territorial sovereignty against threats from outside. Private forest companies must negotiate concessions with the resourceowning tribals. The present system of timber rights purchases does not work well. An example of a possible solution, the Madang Wood Chip Project, is presented. (A shorter version of this article is found in Fortmann and Bruce 1988, annotation 50.)
131. de Zeeuw, F. 1989. Community involvement in forest management: some experiences in the Ratnapura District. BOS Newsletter 8(2):17-26.
SRI LANKA This article deals with forest management aspects in the context of the Joint Forestry Programme of the Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP) Ratnapura and the forest department of Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka. The scope for community involvement in forest management and village opinions and proposals regarding organization and legal aspects are discussed. The author concludes that current Sri Lankan legislation does not offer enough possibilities to implement community forestry management on a large scale but that there might be enough good will at the forest department to initiate pilot projects and undertake small-scale experiments on community involvement as proposed by the communities.
132. de Zeeuw, F. 1988. Community involvement in forest management in the Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka: a study on aspects of land tenure and management in social forestry. Department of Forest Management, Agricultural University Wageningen, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
SRI LANKA This is a report based on research in Sri Lanka concentrating on the village reafforestation component of the Joint Forestry Programme of the Ratnapura and the forest department in Ratnapura District. The author aims at identifying relevant elements to be incorporated in arrangements between the forest department and local level organizations. The field study was done in two villages. Group management of forests by villagers should be based on formalized legal access for village organizations to forest lands, and it will only be effective if all forest areas in and around the village (plantations, as well as natural forests) are included. Only then can informal exploitation of natural forests be regulated and the position of the poorer strata of the society ensured.
Aga Khan Foundation
Aga Khan Rural Support Programme
Bosbow Ontwkkelingssamenwerkung [Forestry Development Cooperation, Netherlands]
Board on Science & Technology for International
Development (division of NRC)
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (London, UK)
Community Forestry Development Project (Nepal)
Common forest resource
Common property resource
Common property resource management
Environment and Policy Institute (East-West Center,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Azad Kashmir Hill Farming Technical Development Project (Pakistan)
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid
Tropics (Hyderabad, India)
International Foundation for Development Alternatives
Integrated Rural Development Programme
Institute of Social Studies (The Hague, Netherlands)
Man & the Biosphere (programme of UNESCO)
National Research Council (US National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA)
Overseas Development Institute (London, UK)
Regional Office for Asia & the Pacific (of FAO, Bangkok, Thailand)
Regional Community Forestry Training Centre (Kasetsart
University, Bangkok, Thailand)
Science & Technology Bureau (of USAID)
Swedish International Development Authority
Social Science Research Council (USA)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
United States Agency for International Development